Anaerobic digestion of spent mushroom substrate under thermophilic conditions: performance and microbial community analysis
- 504 Downloads
Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is the residue of edible mushroom production occurring in huge amounts. The SMS residue can be digested for biogas production in the mesophilic anaerobic digestion. In the present study, performance of batch thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD) of SMS was investigated as well as the interconnected microbial population structure changes. The analyzed batch TAD process lasted for 12 days with the cumulative methane yields of 177.69 mL/g volatile solid (VS). Hydrolytic activities of soluble sugar, crude protein, and crude fat in SMS were conducted mainly in the initial phase, accompanied by the excessive accumulation of volatile fatty acids and low methane yield. Biogas production increased dramatically from days 4 to 6. The degradation rates of cellulose and hemicellulose were 47.53 and 55.08%, respectively. The high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed that Proteobacteria (56.7%–62.8%) was the dominant phylum in different fermentative stages, which was highly specific compared with other anaerobic processes of lignocellulosic materials reported in the literature. Crenarchaeota was abundant in the archaea. The most dominant genera of archaea were retrieved as Methanothermobacter and Methanobacterium, but the latter decreased sharply with time. This study shows that TAD is a feasible method to handle the waste SMS.
KeywordsBiogas Lignocellulosic biomass Proteobacteria Crenarchaeota Methanothermobacter
This study was funded by Natural Science Foundation of China (31370146), Collaborative Innovation for Juncao Ecology Industry (JCZXGGKT-2015001), Fujian Province Science and Technology Major Projects (2014NZ2002-1), Sub Project of National Science and Technology Support Program (2014BAD15B01-6).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- APHA (1995) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 19th edn. American Public Health Association, New York,USAGoogle Scholar
- Chaturvedi V, Verma P (2015) Biodegradation of malachite green by a novel copper-tolerant Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense strain GGUPV1 isolated from copper mine waste water. Bioresour Bioprocess 2(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40643-015-0070-8
- Chen X, Wang Y, Yang F, Qu Y, Li X (2015) Isolation and characterization of Achromobacter sp. CX2 from symbiotic Cytophagales, a non-cellulolytic bacterium showing synergism with cellulolytic microbes by producing β-glucosidase. Ann Microbiol 65(3):1699–1707. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13213-014-1009-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- CNBS (1986) Determination of soluble sugar in vegetable and fruit. China National Bureau of Standards. Beijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
- Desantis TZ, Hugenholtz P, Larsen N, Rojas M, Brodie EL, Keller K, Huber T, Dalevi D, Hu P, Andersen GL (2006) Greengenes, a chimera-checked 16S rRNA gene database and workbench compatible with ARB. Appl Environ Microbiol 72(7):5069–5072. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03006-05 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Kowalczyk A, Chyc M, Ryszka P, Latowski D (2016) Achromobacter xylosoxidans as a new microorganism strain colonizing high-density polyethylene as a key step to its biodegradation. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 23(11):11349–11356. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-6563-y CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Lü F, Bize A, Guillot A, Monnet V, Madigou C, Chapleur O, Mazéas L, He P, Bouchez T (2014) Metaproteomics of cellulose methanisation under thermophilic conditions reveals a surprisingly high proteolytic activity. ISME J 8(1):88–102. https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2013.120 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Niu Q, Qiao W, Qiang H, Li YY (2013) Microbial community shifts and biogas conversion computation during steady, inhibited and recovered stages of thermophilic methane fermentation on chicken manure with a wide variation of ammonia. Bioresour Technol 146:223–233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.07.038 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nordell E, Nilsson B, Nilsson Paledal S, Karisalmi K, Moestedt J (2016) Co-digestion of manure and industrial waste—the effects of trace element addition. Waste Manag 47(Pt A):21–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2015.02.032
- Pivato A, Vanin S, Raga R, Lavagnolo MC, Barausse A, Rieple A, Laurent A, Cossu R (2016) Use of digestate from a decentralized on-farm biogas plant as fertilizer in soils: an ecotoxicological study for future indicators in risk and life cycle assessment. Waste Manag 49:378–389. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2015.12.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- SAC (1994) Method for the determination of crude protein in feedstuffs. Standardization Administration of China, Beijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
- SAC (2006) Determination of crude fat in feeds. Standardization Administration of China, Beijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
- Schlüter A, Bekel T, Diaz NN, Dondrup M, Eichenlaub R, Gartemann K-H, Krahn I, Krause L, Krömeke H, Kruse O, Mussgnug JH, Neuweger H, Niehaus K, Pühler A, Runte KJ, Szczepanowski R, Tauch A, Tilker A, Viehöver P, Goesmann A (2008) The metagenome of a biogas-producing microbial community of a production-scale biogas plant fermenter analysed by the 454-pyrosequencing technology. J Biotechnol 136(1–2):77–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2008.05.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sluiter A, Hames B, Ruiz R, Scarlata C, Sluiter J, Templeton D, Crocker D (2008) Determination of structural carbohydrates and lignin in biomass. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-510-42618, GoldenGoogle Scholar
- Stolze Y, Zakrzewski M, Maus I, Eikmeyer F, Jaenicke S, Rottmann N, Siebner C, Pühler A, Schlüter A (2015) Comparative metagenomics of biogas-producing microbial communities from production-scale biogas plants operating under wet or dry fermentation conditions. Biotechnol Biofuels 8:14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13068-014-0193-8 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Subba Reddy GV, Rafi MM, Rubesh Kumar S, Khayalethu N, Muralidhara Rao D, Manjunatha B, Philip GH, Reddy BR (2016) Optimization study of 2-hydroxyquinoxaline (2-HQ) biodegradation by Ochrobactrum sp. HQ1. 3 Biotech 6(1). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-015-0358-6
- Synytsya A, Míčková K, Synytsya A, Jablonský I, Spěváček J, Erban V, Kováříková E, Čopíková J (2009) Glucans from fruit bodies of cultivated mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus eryngii: structure and potential prebiotic activity. Carbohydr Polym 76(4):548–556. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2008.11.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yang ZH, Xu R, Zheng Y, Chen T, Zhao LJ, Li M (2016) Characterization of extracellular polymeric substances and microbial diversity in anaerobic co-digestion reactor treated sewage sludge with fat, oil, grease. Bioresour Technol 212:164–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.04.046 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zakrzewski M, Goesmann A, Jaenicke S, Jünemann S, Eikmeyer F, Szczepanowski R, Al-Soud WA, Sørensen S, Pühler A, Schlüter A (2012) Profiling of the metabolically active community from a production-scale biogas plant by means of high-throughput metatranscriptome sequencing. J Biotechnol 158(4):248–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2012.01.020 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar