Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 101, Issue 23–24, pp 8517–8531 | Cite as

Genomic analyses reveal low mitochondrial and high nuclear diversity in the cyclosporin-producing fungus Tolypocladium inflatum

  • Yong-Jie ZhangEmail author
  • Xiao-Qing Yang
  • Shu Zhang
  • Richard A. Humber
  • Jianping XuEmail author
Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics


Mitochondrial DNA is generally regarded to evolve faster than nuclear DNA in animals, whereas if this is also true in fungi remains unclear. Herein, we annotate the first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the cyclosporin-producing fungus Tolypocladium inflatum and report the genome-wide sequence variations among five isolates originating from distantly separated localities. We found that T. inflatum has among the most compact of fungal mitogenomes; its 25 kb DNA molecule encodes all standard fungal mitochondrial genes and harbors only one intron. Transcriptional analyses validated the expression of most conserved genes. We found several uncommon repetitive elements and evidence of gene transfer from the mitochondrion to the nucleus. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the placement of T. inflatum in the fungal order Hypocreales although there was uncertainty on its family-level affiliation. Comparative genomic analyses among the five isolates identified an overall lower level of intraspecific variation in mitogenomes than in nuclear genomes; however, both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes revealed similar isolate relationships, not correlating with geographic sources of these isolates. Our study shed new insights into the evolution of the medicinally important ascomycete T. inflatum.


Tolypocladium inflatum Mitochondrial genome Transcriptome Comparative genomics Phylogeny Evolution 



The authors thank USDA-ARS Collection of Entomopathogenic Fungal Cultures for providing T. inflatum isolates.

Funding information

This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81102759), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province (2014021030-2, 201601D011065), the Fund Program for the Scientific Activities of Selected Returned Overseas Professionals in Shanxi Province, and the Research Project Supported by Shanxi Scholarship Council of China (2017-015).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical statement

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

253_2017_8574_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (399 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 398 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Life SciencesShanxi UniversityTaiyuanChina
  2. 2.Institute of BiotechnologyShanxi UniversityTaiyuanChina
  3. 3.Institute of Applied ChemistryShanxi UniversityTaiyuanChina
  4. 4.USDA, ARS Emerging Pests and Pathogens Research UnitRobert W. Holley Center for Agriculture and HealthIthacaUSA
  5. 5.Department of BiologyMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

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