Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 101, Issue 21, pp 7865–7876 | Cite as

Fluidised-bed spray-drying formulations of Candida sake CPA-1 by adding biodegradable coatings to enhance their survival under stress conditions

  • Anna Carbó
  • Rosario Torres
  • Josep Usall
  • Cristina Solsona
  • Neus Teixidó
Biotechnological products and process engineering


The biocontrol agent Candida sake CPA-1 has demonstrated to be effective against several diseases on fruit. However, for application of CPA-1 under field conditions, it was necessary to mix it with a food coating to improve survival under stress conditions, as well as adherence and distribution on fruit surfaces. The objective of this study was to obtain a more competitive formulation under field conditions to be applied independently of any product. To achieve this purpose, the drying process of CPA-1 by a fluidised-bed spray-drying system together with biodegradable coatings was optimised. This approach is novel for the drying system used and the formulation obtained which was able to form a film or coating on fruit surfaces. Several substances were tested as carriers and binders, and drying temperature was optimised. The addition of protective compounds was also tested to improve survival of CPA-1 during the dehydration process. Product shelf life, biocontrol efficacy on grapes against Botrytis cinerea, and the improvement of C. sake behaviour under stress conditions were tested. The optimal temperature of drying was 55 °C and two formulations that were able to develop a coating on fruit surfaces were obtained. One of the formulations was created by using a combination of native and pregelatinised potato starch; the other formulation was obtained using maltodextrin and by adding skimmed milk and sucrose as protectant compounds. The formulated products reduced the incidence and severity of B. cinerea, and CPA-1 survival rate was increased under stress conditions of temperature and humidity.


Fluidised-spray drying Biological control Botrytis cinerea Coatings Formulation Grapes 



The authors would like to thank Celia Sánchez and Andrea Berge for their technical assistance. In addition, the authors are also grateful to INIA and FSE (Fondo Social Europeo) for the PhD grant awarded to A. Carbó. They are also grateful to the CERCA Programme/Generalitat de Catalunya.

Funding Information

The authors are grateful to INIA (Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria) and FEDER (Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional) for financial support through national project RTA2012-00067-C02-01.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IRTA, XaRTA-Postharvest, Edifici Fruitcentre, Parc Científic i Tecnològic Agroalimentari de LleidaLleidaSpain

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