Biobutanol production from apple pomace: the importance of pretreatment methods on the fermentability of lignocellulosic agro-food wastes
- 449 Downloads
Apple pomace was studied as a possible raw material for biobutanol production. Five different soft physicochemical pretreatments (autohydrolysis, acids, alkalis, organic solvents and surfactants) were compared in a high-pressure reactor, whose working parameters (temperature, time and reagent concentration) were optimised to maximise the amount of simple sugars released and to minimise inhibitor generation. The pretreated biomass was subsequently subjected to a conventional enzymatic treatment to complete the hydrolysis. A thermal analysis (DSC) of the solid biomass indicated that lignin was mainly degraded during the enzymatic treatment. The hydrolysate obtained with the surfactant polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) (1.96% w/w) contained less inhibitors than any other pretreatment, yet providing 42 g/L sugars at relatively mild conditions (100 °C, 5 min), and was readily fermented by Clostridium beijerinckii CECT 508 in 96 h (3.55 g/L acetone, 9.11 g/L butanol, 0.26 g/L ethanol; 0.276 gB/gS yield; 91% sugar consumption). Therefore, it is possible to optimise pretreatment conditions of lignocellulosic apple pomace to reduce inhibitor concentrations in the final hydrolysate and perform successful ABE fermentations without the need of a detoxification stage.
KeywordsApple pomace Lignocellulosic wastes Pretreatment ABE fermentation Biorefinery DSC
The authors thank Novozymes for kindly providing samples of their enzymes. Authors thank R. Antón del Río, N. del Castillo Ferreras and G. Sarmiento Martínez for their technical help.
The present work has been performed as part of the H2020-LCE-2015 Waste2Fuels project (sustainable production of next-generation biofuels from waste streams—Waste2Fuels; GA—654623), funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme. MH-V is supported by a postdoctoral contract (DOC-INIA, grant number DOC 2013-010) funded by the Spanish Agricultural and Agrifood Research Institute (INIA) and the European Social Fund.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Chen J-S, Zidwick MJ, Rogers P (2013) Organic acid and solvent production: butanol, acetone and isopropanol; 1,3- and 1,2-propanediol production; and 2,3-butanediol production. In: Rosenberg E, DeLong EF, Lory S, Stackebrandt E, Thompson F (eds) The prokaryotes-applied bacteriology and biotechnology. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, pp 77–134Google Scholar
- Ćosić B, Pukšec T, Krajačić G, Duić N, Markovska N, Mikulčić H, Vujanović M (2016) Database/inventory of the FRUIT AWCB value chain. AgroCycle. http://www.agrocycle.eu/documents/. Accessed in April 2017
- Dien BS, Jung H-JG, Vogel KP, Casler MD, Lamb JAFS, Iten L, Mitchell RB, Sarath G (2006) Chemical composition and response to dilute-acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of alfalfa, reed canarygrass, and switchgrass. Biomass Bioenergy 30:880–891. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2006.02.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- FAOSTAT (2016) Statistics of the food and agriculture organisation of the United Nations, http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data (Last accessed in March 2017)
- Folin O, Denis W (1912) On phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic compounds as color reagents. J Biol Chem 12:239–243Google Scholar
- Gama R, van Dyk JS, Pletschke BI (2015) Optimisation of enzymatic hydrolysis of apple pomace for production of biofuel and biorefinery chemicals using commercial enzymes. 3 Biotech 5:1075–1087. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-015-0312-7
- Garrote G, Domínguez H, Parajó JC (1999) Mild autohydrolysis: an environmentally friendly technology for xylooligosaccharide production from wood. J Chem Technol Biot 74:1101–1109. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4660(199911)74:11<1101::AID-JCTB146>3.0.CO;2-M
- Guilherme AA, Dantas PVF, Santos ES, Fernandes FAN, Macedo GR (2015) Evaluation of composition, characterization and enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated sugar cane bagasse. Braz J Chem Eng 32:23–33. https://doi.org/10.1590/0104–6632.20150321s00003146 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kótai L, Szépvölgyi J, Szilágyi M, Zhibin L, Baiquan C, Sharma V, Sharma PK (2013) Biobutanol from renewable agricultural and lignocellulose resources and its perspectives as alternative of liquid fuels. In: Fang Z (ed) Liquid. Gaseous and Solid Biofuels-Conversion Techniques. InTech, Rijeka, pp 199–262Google Scholar
- Kurabi A, Berlin A, Gilkes N, Kilburn D, Bura R, Robinson J, Markov A, Skomarovsky A, Gusakov A, Okunev O, Sinitsyn A, Gregg D, Xie D, Saddler J (2005) Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded and ethanol organosolv-pretreated Douglas-fir by novel and commercial fungal cellulases. Appl Biochem Biotech 121-124:219–230. https://doi.org/10.1385/ABAB:121:1-3:0219 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- NREL (2008) Determination of ash in biomass. Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP). Technical Report NREL/TP-510-42622. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy08/42622.pdf, accessed in May 2017
- NREL (2012) Determination of structural carbohydrates and lignin in biomass. Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP). Technical report NREL/TP-510-42618 http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy13/42618.pdf, Accessed in May 2017
- Obama P, Ricochon G, Muniglia L, Brosse N (2012) Combination of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol organosolv pretreatments: effect on lignin structures, delignification yields and cellulose-to-glucose conversion. Bioresour Technol 112:156–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.02.080 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Orozco AM, Al-Muhtaseb AH, Rooney D, Walker GM, Ahmad MNM (2013) Hydrolysis characteristics and kinetics of waste hay biomass as a potential energy crop for fermentable sugars production using autoclave Parr reactor system. Ind Crop Prod 44:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.10.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Paniagua-García AI, Díez-Antolínez R, Sánchez-Morán ME, Coca-Sanz M, Hijosa-Valsero M (in preparation) Butanol production from dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysate of switchgrass by Clostridium beijerinckii: Effect of inhibitors and sugars concentrationGoogle Scholar
- Qureshi N, Saha BC, Hector RE, Dien B, Hughes S, Liu S, Iten L, Bowman MJ, Sarath G, Cotta MA (2010) Production of butanol (a biofuel) from agricultural residues: part II—use of corn stover and switchgrass hydrolysates. Biomass Bioenergy 34:566–571. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2009.12.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tahir A, Sarwar S (2012) Effect of cultural condition on production of ethanol from rotten apple waste by Saccharomyces cerevisiae straining. Can J App Sci 2:187–195Google Scholar
- Zverlov VV, Berezina O, Velikodvorskaya GA, Schwarz WH (2006) Bacterial acetone and butanol production by industrial fermentation in the Soviet Union: use of hydrolyzed agricultural waste for biorefinery. Appl Microbiol Biot 71:587–597. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-006-0445-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar