Acinetobacter pittii, an emerging new multi-drug resistant fish pathogen isolated from diseased blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Yih) in China
- 370 Downloads
Despite the reason that genus Acinetobacter works as a grave human pathogen, very few numbers of researches have been done so that term it as a pathogen in respect to fish. As per the current study, isolation of three pathogenic bacterial strains was carried out from infected blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Yih), from a farm in Yixing city, Jiangsu province, China, which displayed symptoms like tail-rot, shedding scales and ascites in addition to gentle ulceration on the entire body regardless of size and sex of fish. Taking into account the bases of morphology, varied biochemical tests, 16S rDNA segment and rpoB gene sequence analysis, in addition to phylogenetic study, the pathogenic bacteria was identified as A. pittii. Recursive infectivity experiment validated their pathogenicity. Pathological modifications of blunt snout bream infected with A. pittii were taken into observation. Confirmation of the pathogenicity was additionally made by infectivity studies of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) and nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans). The drug resistance of these isolates was also scrutinized. All isolates, recognized as multiple drug resistant strains, showcased resistance to clindamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin, cephalosporins, ampicillin, piperacillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, while showcasing sensitivity to norfloxacin, gentamicin, amikacin, and imipenem. Multi-locus sequence typing of these A. pittii isolates brought to light a new clonal lineage of Acinetobacter leading to fish septicemia outbreaks together with indicating that Acinetobacter stains with the new sequence type 839 may be the dominant clone. This is the first report dealing with the infection caused by A. pittii in fish that suggests that A. pittii has a prospective threat to be encountered by freshwater fish farming in addition to causing human clinical infections.
KeywordsAcinetobacter pittii Blunt snout bream Pathogenic Bioassay Drug susceptibility Multi-locus sequence typing
We thank for Prof. Lu Chengping and Prof. Liu Yongjie at Nanjing Agricultural University for generously providing the A. hydrophila J-1 strain. We thank for Prof. Dr. Sun at State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University for generously providing the C. elegans N2 strain.
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was funded by grants from the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities [52902-0900206088] and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province [2014CKB504].
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Animal ethics approval for the present project was obtained from the Animal Ethics Committee of Huazhong Agricultural University.
- (CLSI) CaLSI (2006a) Methods for antimicrobial dilution and disk susceptibility testing of infrequently isolated or fastidious bacteria. CLSI document M49-A 1-56238-612-3. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, WayneGoogle Scholar
- (CLSI) CaLSI (2006b) Methods for antimicrobial disk susceptibility testing of bacteria isolated from aquatic animals. Approved guideline CLSI document M42-A 1-56238-611-5. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, WayneGoogle Scholar
- Agerso Y, Petersen A (2007) The tetracycline resistance determinant Tet 39 and the sulphonamide resistance gene sulII are common among resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from integrated fish farms in Thailand. J Antimicrob Chemother 59(1):23–27. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkl419 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brahmi S, Touati A, Cadiere A, Djahmi N, Pantel A, Sotto A, Lavigne JP, Dunyach-Remy C (2016) First description of two sequence type 2 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates carrying OXA-23 carbapenemase in Pagellus acarne fished from the Mediterranean Sea near Bejaia, Algeria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 60(4):2513–2515. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02384-15 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Delong EF (1992) Archaea in coastal marine environments. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89(12):5 Acinetobacter baumannii MLST database. Accessed 16.05.06Google Scholar
- Gu T, Lu C, Chen H (1997) Acinetobacter baumannii, a novel pathogen of acute epidemic in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi). Microbiology 2:104–106Google Scholar
- Jacobs AC, Thompson MG, Black CC, Kessler JL, Clark LP, McQueary CN, Gancz HY, Corey BW, Moon JK, Si Y, Owen MT, Hallock JD, Kwak YI, Summers A, Li CZ, Rasko DA, Penwell WF, Honnold CL, Wise MC, Waterman PE, Lesho EP, Stewart RL, Actis LA, Palys TJ, Craft DW, Zurawski DV (2014) AB5075, a highly virulent isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii, as a model strain for the evaluation of pathogenesis and antimicrobial treatments. MBio 5(3):e01076–e01014. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01076-14 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Kim YO, Kim WJ, Choi SH, Kim DS, Kim DW, Lee JS, Kong HJ, Nam BH, Kim BS, Lee SJ, Park HS, Chae SH (2011) Genome sequence of Acinetobacter sp. strain P8-3-8, isolated from Fistularia commersonii in Vietnam. J Bacteriol 193(16):4288–4289. doi: 10.1128/JB.05333-11 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Kozińska A, Paździor E, Pękala A, Niemczuk W (2014) Acinetobacter johnsonii and Acinetobacter lwoffii - the emerging fish pathogens. B VET I PULAWY 58(2):193–199. doi: 10.2478/bvip-2014-0029
- Lee MJ, Jang SJ, Li XM, Park G, Kook JK, Kim MJ, Chang YH, Shin JH, Kim SH, Kim DM, Kang SH, Moon DS (2014) Comparison of rpoB gene sequencing, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, gyrB multiplex PCR, and the VITEK2 system for identification of Acinetobacter clinical isolates. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 78(1):29–34. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2013.07.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Montealegre MC, Maya JJ, Correa A, Espinal P, Mojica MF, Ruiz SJ, Rosso F, Vila J, Quinn JP, Villegas MV (2012) First identification of OXA-72 carbapenemase from Acinetobacter pittii in Colombia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56(7):3996–3998. doi: 10.1128/aac.05628-11 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Nemec A, Krizova L, Maixnerova M, van der Reijden TJK, Deschaght P, Passet V, Vaneechoutte M, Brisse S, Dijkshoorn L (2011) Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus–Acinetobacter baumannii complex with the proposal of Acinetobacter pittii sp. nov. (formerly Acinetobacter genomic species 3) and Acinetobacter nosocomialis sp. nov. (formerly Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU). Res Microbiol 162(4):393–404. doi: 10.1016/j.resmic.2011.02.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nemec A, Krizova L, Maixnerova M, Sedo O, Brisse S, Higgins PG (2015) Acinetobacter seifertii sp. nov., a member of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolated from human clinical specimens. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 65(Pt 3):934–942. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.000043 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rauta PR, Kumar K, Sahoo PK (2011) Emerging new multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogen, A. baumannii associated with snakehead eye infection. Curr Sci 101:548–553Google Scholar
- Reed LJ, Muench L (1938) A simple method of estimating fifty percent endpoints. Am J Trop Med Hyg 27:493–497Google Scholar
- Russo TA, Luke NR, Beanan JM, Olson R, Sauberan SL, MacDonald U, Schultz LW, Umland TC, Campagnari AA (2010) The K1 capsular polysaccharide of Acinetobacter baumannii strain 307-0294 is a major virulence factor. Infect Immun 78(9):3993–4000. doi: 10.1128/iai.00366-10 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Tjernberg I, Ursing J (1989) Clinical strains of Acinetobacter classified by DNA-DNA hybridization. Acta Pathol Acta Histochem 97(7):595–605Google Scholar
- Wang X, Chen T, Yu R, Lü X, Zong Z (2013) Acinetobacter pittii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis among clinical isolates of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex in Sichuan, China. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 76(3):392–395. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2013.03.020 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wisplinghoff H, Edmond MB, Pfaller MA, Jones RN, Wenzel RP, Seifert H (2000) Nosocomial bloodstream infections caused by Acinetobacter species in United States hospitals: clinical features, molecular epidemiology, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Clin Infect Dis 31(3):690–697. doi: 10.1086/314040 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar