The susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus CIP 65.8 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9721 cells to the bactericidal action of nanostructured Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis damselfly wing surfaces
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Nanostructured insect wing surfaces have been reported to possess the ability to resist bacterial colonization through the mechanical rupture of bacterial cells coming into contact with the surface. In this work, the susceptibility of physiologically young, mature and old Staphylococcus aureus CIP 65.8 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9721 bacterial cells, to the action of the bactericidal nano-pattern of damselfly Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis wing surfaces, was investigated. The results were obtained using several surface characterization techniques including optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, synchrotron-sourced Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy, water contact angle measurements and antibacterial assays. The data indicated that the attachment propensity of physiologically young S. aureus CIP 65.8T and mature P. aeruginosa ATCC 9721 bacterial cells was greater than that of the cells at other stages of growth. Both the S. aureus CIP 65.8T and P. aeruginosa ATCC 9721 cells, grown at the early (1 h) and late stationary phase (24 h), were found to be most susceptible to the action of the wings, with up to 89.7 and 61.3% as well as 97.9 and 97.1% dead cells resulting from contact with the wing surface, respectively.
KeywordsBlack damselfly Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis Nanopillar arrays Bactericidal Physiological growth
We gratefully acknowledge funding from the Marie Curie Actions research program under the EU FP7 Initial Training Network SNAL 608184. This research was undertaken on the Infrared Microscopectroscopy beamline at the Australian Synchrotron, Victoria, Australia.
Compliance with ethical standards
Human and animal rights and informed consent
This paper does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing conflict of interest.
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