Influence of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer on soil bacterial community structure and function in a rice-wheat cropping system
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To study the influence of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer on bacterial community structure and biological traits, a 3-year field experiments, including four treatments: control without fertilizer (CK), chemical fertilizer (NPK), chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha−1 straw incorporation (NPKS), and chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha−1 straw incorporation and 300 kg ha−1 straw decomposer (NPKSD), were performed in a rice-wheat cropping system in Changshu (CS) and Jintan (JT) city, respectively. Soil samples were taken right after wheat (June) and rice (October) harvest in both sites, respectively. The NPKS and NPKSD treatments consistently increased crop yields, cellulase activity, and bacterial abundance in both sampling times and sites. Moreover, the NPKS and NPKSD treatments altered soil bacterial community structure, particularly in the wheat harvest soils in both sites, separating from the CK and NPK treatments. In the rice harvest soils, both NPKS and NPKSD treatments had no considerable impacts on bacterial communities in CS, whereas the NPKSD treatment significantly shaped bacterial communities compared to the other treatments in JT. These practices also significantly shifted the bacterial composition of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) rather than shared OTUs. The relative abundances of copiotrophic bacteria (Proteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria) were positively correlated with soil total N, available N, and available P. Taken together, these results indicate that application of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer could particularly stimulate the copiotrophic bacteria, enhance the soil biological activity, and thus, contribute to the soil productivity and sustainability in agro-ecosystems.
KeywordsStraw incorporation Straw decomposer Rice-wheat cropping system Low-Middle Yangtze River plain Bacterial community structure
This research was financially supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB150502), the Priority Academic Program Development (PAPD) of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, the 111 Project (B12009), the National Infrastructure of Microbial Resources (NIRM), and the Research Innovation Program for College Graduates of Jiangsu Province (CXZZ13_0301). We also would like to thank the anonymous referees for their constructive comments, which significantly improved the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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