Changes in the microbial community of an anammox consortium during adaptation to marine conditions revealed by 454 pyrosequencing
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The anammox activity of a freshwater anammox consortium was strongly inhibited at low-salinity level. Stepwise adaptation from 0 to 3 g NaCl L−1 took 153 days. Further adaptation to high-salinity concentration (from 3 to 30 g L−1) took only 40 days, and no inhibition was observed. A comprehensive insight into the salinity-induced successions of the total and the anammox communities was obtained by 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and statistical analysis. A major succession in the anammox community was observed at 3 g L−1 where the dominating population shifted from Candidatus Brocadia fulgida to Ca. Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. The latter dominated at high salinity and seemed to be essential for the high (˃96%) ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies achieved. SIMPER analysis indicated that these two dominating anammox species explained most to the differences in community structure among samples and helped in identifying other important members at different salinities.
KeywordsAnammox Amplicon pyrosequencing Bacterial community Salinity
This work is a part of a Ph.D. study funded by the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology and Strategiske Omstillingsmidler (SO) (grant number: 81733600), Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). The authors wish to thank Dr. Christian Vogelsang, from Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), for providing the anammox culture and all the scientific support given to this project in the early stage. Finally, we want to thank two anonymous reviewers for helpful suggestions to an earlier version of the paper.
Compliance with ethical standards
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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