Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 101, Issue 8, pp 3153–3161 | Cite as

Enhancement of succinate yield by manipulating NADH/NAD+ ratio and ATP generation

  • Jiaojiao Li
  • Yikui Li
  • Zhiyong Cui
  • Quanfeng LiangEmail author
  • Qingsheng Qi
Biotechnological products and process engineering


We previously engineered Escherichia coli YL104 to efficiently produce succinate from glucose. In this study, we investigated the relationships between the NADH/NAD+ ratio, ATP level, and overall yield of succinate production by using glucose as the carbon source in YL104. First, the use of sole NADH dehydrogenases increased the overall yield of succinate by 7% and substantially decreased the NADH/NAD+ ratio. Second, the soluble fumarate reductase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was overexpressed to manipulate the anaerobic NADH/NAD+ ratio and ATP level. Third, another strategy for reducing the ATP level was applied by introducing ATP futile cycling for improving succinate production. Finally, a combination of these methods exerted a synergistic effect on improving the overall yield of succinate, which was 39% higher than that of the previously engineered strain YL104. The study results indicated that regulation of the NADH/NAD+ ratio and ATP level is an efficient strategy for succinate production.


Succinate yield NADH/NAD+ ratio ATP generation NADH dehydrogenases Soluble fumarate reductases ATP futile cycling 



This work was financially supported by a grant from the National Basic Research Program of China (2012CB725202), a grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31170097, 31370085), and a grant from the Shandong Science and Technology Development Plan (2015GSF121042).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

253_2017_8127_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (183 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 182 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiaojiao Li
    • 1
  • Yikui Li
    • 1
  • Zhiyong Cui
    • 1
  • Quanfeng Liang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Qingsheng Qi
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, School of Life ScienceShandong UniversityJinanPeople’s Republic of China

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