Regulation of membrane fixation and energy production/conversion for adaptation and recovery of ZnO nanoparticle impacted Nitrosomonas europaea
The ZnO nanoparticle (NP) effects on typical ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosomonas europaea in a chemostat bioreactor, and the cells’ toxicity adaptation and recovery potentials were explored. Hardly any inhibition was observed when the NP concentration was high up to 10 mg/L. The cells exposed to 50 mg/L ZnO NPs displayed time-dependent impairment and recovery potentials in terms of cell density, membrane integrity, nitrite production rate, and ammonia monooxygenase activity. The 6-h NP stress impaired cells were nearly completely restored during a 12-h recovery incubation, while the longer exposure time would cause irretrievable cell damage. Microarray analysis further indicated the transcriptional adaptation of N. europaea to NP stress. The regulations of genes encoding for membrane permeability or osmoprotectant, membrane integrity preservation, and inorganic ion transport during NP exposure and cell recovery revealed the importance of membrane fixation and the associated metabolisms for cells’ self-protection and the following recovery from NP stress. The oxidative phosphorylation, carbon assimilation, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycling pathways involved in the cells’ antitoxicity activities and would promote the energy production/conversion efficiency for cell recovery. The heavy metal resistance, histidine metabolism, toxin-antitoxin defense, glycolysis, and sulfate reduction pathways were also suggested to participate in the cell detoxication and recovery processes. All these findings provided valuable insights into the mechanisms of cell-mediated ZnO NP cytotoxicity and their potential impacts on wastewater nitrogen removal system.
KeywordsZnO nanoparticle Nitrosomonas europaea Microarray Inhibition Recovery
This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51678134 and No. 51208092), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (BK2012124), and Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (20120092120010). We sincerely appreciate Professor Chang-ping Yu at Institute of Urban Environment at Chinese Academy of Science for his kind offer of N. europaea cultures.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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