Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 101, Issue 2, pp 771–781 | Cite as

Dynamic change of surface microbiota with different environmental cleaning methods between two wards in a hospital

  • Chang-Hua Chen
  • Chi-Chao Tu
  • Han-Yueh Kuo
  • Rong-Fong Zeng
  • Cheng-Sheng Yu
  • Henry Horng-Shing Lu
  • Ming-Li Liou
Environmental biotechnology


Terminal disinfection and daily cleaning have been performed in hospitals in Taiwan for many years to reduce the risks of healthcare-associated infections. However, the effectiveness of these cleaning approaches and dynamic changes of surface microbiota upon cleaning remain unclear. Here, we report the surface changes of bacterial communities with terminal disinfection and daily cleaning in a medical intensive care unit (MICU) and only terminal disinfection in a respiratory care center (RCC) using 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) metagenomics. A total of 36 samples, including 9 samples per sampling time, from each ward were analysed. The clinical isolates were recorded during the sampling time. A large amount of microbial diversity was detected, and human skin microbiota (HSM) was predominant in both wards. In addition, the colonization rate of the HSM in the MICU was higher than that in the RCC, especially for Moraxellaceae. A higher alpha-diversity (p = 0.005519) and a lower UniFrac distance was shown in the RCC due to the lack of daily cleaning. Moreover, a significantly higher abundance among Acinetobacter sp., Streptococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. was shown in the RCC compared to the MICU using the paired t test. We concluded that cleaning changes might contribute to the difference in diversity between two wards.


16S rRNA metagenomics Healthcare-associated infection Acinetobacter Respiratory care centre Medical intensive care unit Environmental cleaning methods 



We would like to thank Mr. Kuan-Hsueh Chen, Mr. Ki-Hok Liao for their technical assistance. We thank Prof. Chuan Yi Tang for his financial support.

Compliance with ethical standards


The present work was partially supported by a grant from the Ministry of Science and Technology (grant MOST 104-2627-M-126-001 and grant MOST-104-2627-M-009-006) and Ministry of Health and Welfare Hospital Research Project (104-01).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the NTUH Hsin-Chu Branch (NTUH IRB No. 103-014-E).

Supplementary material

253_2016_7846_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (199 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 198 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chang-Hua Chen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Chi-Chao Tu
    • 4
    • 5
  • Han-Yueh Kuo
    • 6
  • Rong-Fong Zeng
    • 5
  • Cheng-Sheng Yu
    • 7
  • Henry Horng-Shing Lu
    • 7
  • Ming-Li Liou
    • 5
  1. 1.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal MedicineChanghua Christian HospitalChanghua CityTaiwan
  2. 2.Center for Infectious Diseases ResearchChanghua Christian HospitalChanghua CityTaiwan
  3. 3. Department of Nursing, College of Medicine & NursingHung Kuang UniversityTaichung CountyTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of Laboratory Medicine, Keelung HospitalMinister of Health and WelfareKeelung CityTaiwan
  5. 5.Department of Medical Laboratory Science and BiotechnologyYuanpei UniversityHsin-ChuTaiwan
  6. 6.Department of MedicineNational Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu BranchHsin-ChuTaiwan
  7. 7.Institute of StatisticsNational Chiao Tung UniversityHsinchuTaiwan

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