The equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) capsid protein (p26) is one of the major immunogenic proteins during EIAV infection and is widely used for the detection of EIAV antibodies in horses. However, few reports have described the use of EIAV-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in etiological and immunological detection. Previously, we developed an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) for the quantification of the EIAV p26 protein level. However, the epitopes recognized by the MAbs were not identified, and the utilization of the MAbs needs to be evaluated. In this study, we characterized two monoclonal antibodies (9H8 and 1G11 MAbs) against EIAV p26. Two B-cell epitopes are located in amino acid residues, 73NLDKIAEE81 (HE) and 199KNAMRHLRPEDTLEEKMYAC218 (GE) for the 9H8 and 1G11 MAbs, respectively. The 1G11 epitope (GE) varied among viruses isolated worldwide but can be recognized by anti-EIAV sera from different regions, including China, the USA, and Argentina. Meanwhile, 1G11 MAb could react with the mutants of almost all the EIAV strains. Furthermore, we found that the histidine at position 204 (H204), leucine at position 205 (L205), and aspartic acid at position 209 (D209) of EIAV p26 individually played pivotal roles in binding with the 1G11 MAb. Our results revealed that the GE peptide might be a common B-cell binding epitope of EIAV antibodies. This is also the first report to identify a broad-spectrum monoclonal antibody (1G11) against p26 of EIAV. These findings may provide a useful basis for the development of new diagnostic assays for EIAV.
EIAV Monoclonal antibody Capsid protein p26 Epitope mapping Common B-cell epitope Broad-spectrum monoclonal antibody
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This study was funded by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 31222054 to Xiaojun Wang and 31300713 to Zhe Hu).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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