The dynamics and mechanism of the antimicrobial activity of tea tree oil against bacteria and fungi
- 1.3k Downloads
Tea tree oil (TTO) is a yellow liquid extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia. Although the antimicrobial activity of TTO has been known for a long time, its specific antimicrobial effects and mechanism underlying these remain poorly characterized. The present study investigated the chemical composition of TTO and the dynamics and mechanism of its antimicrobial activities in two bacterial and two fungal strains. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis identified alkenes and alcohols as the main constituents of TTO. Terpinen-4-ol was the most abundant individual component, accounting for approximately 23 % of the TTO. Poisoned food technique assessment showed that the minimum inhibitory concentrations of TTO for bacterial strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) and fungal strains (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) were 1.08 and 2.17 mg/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial dynamic curves showed that with increasing concentrations of TTO, the rate of cell killing and the duration of growth lag phase increased correspondingly. These data indicated that TTO produced concentration and time-dependent antimicrobial effects. The minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations of TTO were 2.17, 4.34, and 4.34 against E. coli, S. aureus, and C. albicans, respectively. However, A. niger conidia were not completely eradicated, even after 3 days in the presence of 17.34 mg/mL TTO. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that TTO penetrated the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane of all the tested bacterial and fungal strains. TTO may also penetrate fungal organelle membrane. These findings indicated that TTO maybe exerts its antimicrobial effects by compromising the cell membrane, resulting in loss of the cytoplasm and organelle damage, which ultimate leads to cell death.
KeywordsTea tree oil Escherichia coli Staphylococcus aureus Candida albicans Aspergillus niger
We thank all partners and laboratory members for their kind help. We are obliged to the anonymous reviewers of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology for their constructive comments.
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Nature Science of Foundation of China (No. 31500113), Guangdong Provincial Nature Science of Foundation (No. 2016A030313800), Guangdong Provincial Science and Technology Project (No. 2013B010102014), and Guangzhou Municipal Science and Technology Research Project (No. 201607020020).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
This paper is our original work. It has not been submitted elsewhere, and it is not under consideration in any other journal. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. All the authors have seen the manuscript and approved its submission to applied microbiology and biotechnology.
- Delespaul Q, Billerbeck VG, Roques CG, Michel G (2000) The antifungal activity of essential oils as determined by different screening methods. J Essent Oil Res 12:256–266Google Scholar
- European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (2006): the 5th Edition of European Pharmacopoeia and its subsequent supplements. 5.5 CD-Rom.Google Scholar
- Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV (2012) Effects of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) essential oil and the major monoterpene component terpinen-4-ol on the development of single- and multistep antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial susceptibility. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56(2):909–915CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- International Organization for Standardization. ISO 4730 (1996) : Oil of Melaleuca, Terpinen-4-ol type (Tea Tree Oil) Geneva: International Organization for Standardization.Google Scholar
- Mondello F, Bernardis FD, Girolamo A, Cassone A, Salvatore G (2006) In vivo activity of terpinen-4-ol, the main bioactive component of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (tea tree) oil against azole-susceptible and -resistant human pathogenic Candida species. BMC Infect Dis 6:158–166CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Natalie AT, Katherine AH, Thomas VR, Belkum AV, Carson CF (2013) Effect of habituation to tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil on the subsequent susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. to antimicrobials, triclosan, tea tree oil, terpinen-4-ol and carvacrol. Int J Antimicrob Agents 41:343–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Souza ME, Lopes LQS, Vaucher RA, Mário DN, Alves SH, Agertt VA, Bianchini BV, Felicidade SI, Campus MMA, Boligon AA, Athayde ML, Santos CG, Raffin RP, Gomes P, Santos RCV (2014) Antimycobacterial and antifungal activities of Melaleuca alternifolia oil nanoparticles. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 24(5):559–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar