Advertisement

Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 100, Issue 14, pp 6501–6508 | Cite as

Production of high concentration of l-lactic acid from cellobiose by thermophilic Bacillus coagulans WCP10-4

  • Shufen Angeline Ong
  • Zhi Jian Ng
  • Jin Chuan Wu
Bioenergy and biofuels

Abstract

Thermophilic Bacillus coagulans WCP10-4 is found to be able to convert cellobiose to optically pure l-lactic acid. Its β-glucosidase activity is detected in whole cells (7.3 U/g dry cells) but not in culture medium, indicating the intracellular location of the enzyme. Its β-glucosidase activity is observed only when cultured using cellobiose as the sole carbon source, indicating that the expression of this enzyme is tightly regulated in cells. The enzyme is most active at 50 °C and pH 7.0. The supplement of external β-glucosidase during fermentation of cellobiose (106 g/l) by B. coagulans WCP10-4 increased the fermentation time from 21 to 23 h and decreased the lactic acid yield from 96.1 to 92.9 % compared to the control without β-glucosidase supplementation. B. coagulans WCP10-4 converted 200 g/l of cellobiose to 196.3 g/l of l-lactic acid at a yield of 97.8 % and a productivity of 7.01 g/l/h. This result shows that B. coagulans WCP10-4 is a highly efficient strain for converting cellobiose to l-lactic acid without the need of supplementing external β-glucosidases.

Keywords

Bacillus coagulans Bioreactors Cellobiose Fermentation Lactic acid Thermophiles 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was financially supported by the Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) of the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) of Singapore (SERC grant no. 0921590133). Thanks are given to Ms. Crystal Tear, Ms. Tong Mei Teh and Mr. Mohammad Sufian Bin Hudari for the help in using HPLC and fermentor.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. Abdel-Rahman MA, Tashiro Y, Sonomoto K (2011a) Lactic acid production from lignocellulose-derived sugars using lactic acid bacteria: overview and limits. J Biotechnol 156:286–301CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel-Rahman MA, Tashiro Y, Zendo T, Shibata K, Sonomoto K (2011b) Isolation and characterisation of lactic acid bacterium for effective fermentation of cellobiose into optically pure homo L-(+)-lactic acid. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 89:1039–1049CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Abdel-Rahman MA, Tashiro Y, Sonomoto K (2013) Recent advances in lactic acid production by microbial fermentation processes. Biotechnol Adv 31:877–902CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Adsul M, Khire J, Bastawde K, Gokhale D (2007) Production of lactic acid from cellobiose and cellotriose by Lactobacillus delbrueckii mutant Uc-3. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:5055–5057CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Anuradha R, Suresh A, Venkatesh K (1999) Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch to lactic acid. Process Biochem 35:367–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chapman CM, Loewenberg JR, Schaller MJ, Piechura JE (1983) Ultrastructural localization of cellulase in Trichoderma reesei using immunocytochemistry and enzyme cytochemistry. J Histochem Cytochem 31:1363–1366CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Endres J, Clewell A, Jade K, Farber T, Hauswirth J, Schauss A (2009) Safety assessment of a proprietary preparation of a novel probiotic, Bacillus coagulans, as a food ingredient. Food Chem Toxicol 47:1231–1238CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Fujii M, Mori J-i, Homma T, Taniguchi M (1995) Synergy between an endoglucanase and cellobiohydrolases from Trichoderma koningii. Chem Eng J Biochem Eng J 59:315–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gama R, Van Dyk JS, Pletschke BI (2015) Optimisation of enzymatic hydrolysis of apple pomace for production of biofuel and biorefinery chemicals using commercial enzymes 3. Biotech 5:1075–1087Google Scholar
  10. Hofvendahl K, Hahn–Hägerdal B (2000) Factors affecting the fermentative lactic acid production from renewable resources 1. Enzym Microb Technol 26:87–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Holtzapple M, Cognata M, Shu Y, Hendrickson C (1990) Inhibition of Trichoderma reesei cellulase by sugars and solvents. Biotechnol Bioeng 36:275–287CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Iyer PV, Lee Y (1999) Product inhibition in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose into lactic acid. Biotechnol Lett 21:371–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kumar R, Singh S, Singh OV (2008) Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass: biochemical and molecular perspectives. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 35:377–391CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Lee YH, Fan L (1983) Kinetic studies of enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble cellulose:(II). Analysis of extended hydrolysis times. Biotechnol Bioeng 25:939–966CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Lee JM, Kim Y-R, Kim JK, Jeong G-T, Ha J-C, Kong I-S (2015) Characterization of salt-tolerant β-glucosidase with increased thermostability under high salinity conditions from Bacillus sp. SJ-10 isolated from jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 38:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liming X, Xueliang S (2004) High-yield cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei ZU-02 on corn cob residue. Bioresour Technol 91:259–262CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Löppmann S, Blagodatskaya E, Kuzyakov Y (2014) Microbial respiration and kinetics of extracellular enzymes activities through rhizosphere and detritusphere at agricultural site. In: EGU general assembly conference abstract. p 6079Google Scholar
  18. Lunt J (1998) Large-scale production, properties and commercial applications of polylactic acid polymers. Polym Degrad Stab 59:145–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Martinez FAC, Balciunas EM, Salgado JM, González JMD, Converti A, de Souza Oliveira RP (2013) Lactic acid properties, applications and production: a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 30:70–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Moldes AB, Alonso JL, Parajo JC (2001) Strategies to improve the bioconversion of processed wood into lactic acid by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 76:279–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pal S, Banik SP, Ghorai S, Chowdhury S, Khowala S (2010) Purification and characterization of a thermostable intra-cellular β-glucosidase with transglycosylation properties from filamentous fungus Termitomyces clypeatus. Bioresour Technol 101:2412–2420CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ramos LP, Saddler JN (1994) Enzyme recycling during fed-batch hydrolysis of cellulose derived from steam-exploded Eucalyptus viminalis. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 45:193–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rhee MS, Kim J-w, Qian Y, Ingram L, Shanmugam K (2007) Development of plasmid vector and electroporation condition for gene transfer in sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans. Plasmid 58:13–22CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Sakon J, Irwin D, Wilson DB, Karplus PA (1997) Structure and mechanism of endo/exocellulase E4 from Thermomonospora fusca. Nat Struct Mol Biol 4:810–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Singhania RR, Patel AK, Sukumaran RK, Larroche C, Pandey A (2013) Role and significance of beta-glucosidases in the hydrolysis of cellulose for bioethanol production. Bioresour Technol 127:500–507CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Singhvi M, Joshi D, Adsul M, Varma A, Gokhale D (2010) d-(−)-lactic acid production from cellobiose and cellulose by Lactobacillus lactis mutant RM2-2 4. Green Chem 12:1106–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sternberg D, Vuayakumar P, Reese E (1977) β-Glucosidase: microbial production and effect on enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Can J Microbiol 23:139–147CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Stockton B, Mitchell D, Grohmann K, Himmel M (1991) Optimumβ-D-glucosidase supplementation of cellulase for efficient conversion of cellulose to glucose. Biotechnol Lett 13:57–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Venkatesh K (1997) Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to lactic acid. Bioresour Technol 62:91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Vijayakumar J, Aravindan R, Viruthagiri T (2008) Recent trends in the production, purification and application of lactic acid. Chem Biochem Eng Q 22:245–264Google Scholar
  31. Wee Y-J, Kim J-N, Ryu H-W (2006) Biotechnological production of lactic acid and its recent applications. Food Technol Biotechnol 44:163–172Google Scholar
  32. Wong WKR, Curry C, Parekh RS, Parekh SR, Wayman M, Davies RW, Kilburn DG, Skipper N (1988) Wood hydrolysis by Cellulomonas fimi endoglucanase and exogiucanase coexpressed as secreted enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nat Biotechnol 6:713–719Google Scholar
  33. Ye L, Hudari MSB, Zhou X, Zhang D, Li Z, Wu JC (2013) Conversion of acid hydrolysate of oil palm empty fruit bunch to L-lactic acid by newly isolated Bacillus coagulans JI12. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:4831–4838CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhou X, Ye L, Wu JC (2013) Efficient production of l-lactic acid by newly isolated thermophilic Bacillus coagulans WCP10-4 with high glucose tolerance. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:4309–4314CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shufen Angeline Ong
    • 1
  • Zhi Jian Ng
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jin Chuan Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Chemical and Engineering SciencesAgency for Sciences, Technology and Research (A*STAR)Jurong IslandSingapore
  2. 2.School of Applied Sciences, Republic PolytechnicSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations