Electrochemical immunosensors for Salmonella detection in food
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Pathogen detection is a critical point for the identification and the prevention of problems related to food safety. Failures at detecting contaminations in food may cause outbreaks with drastic consequences to public health. In spite of the real need for obtaining analytical results in the shortest time possible, conventional methods may take several days to produce a diagnosis. Salmonella spp. is the major cause of foodborne diseases worldwide and its absence is a requirement of the health authorities. Biosensors are bioelectronic devices, comprising bioreceptor molecules and transducer elements, able to detect analytes (chemical and/or biological species) rapidly and quantitatively. Electrochemical immunosensors use antibody molecules as bioreceptors and an electrochemical transducer. These devices have been widely used for pathogen detection at low cost. There are four main techniques for electrochemical immunosensors: amperometric, impedimetric, conductometric, and potentiometric. Almost all types of immunosensors are applicable to Salmonella detection. This article reviews the developments and the applications of electrochemical immunosensors for Salmonella detection, particularly the advantages of each specific technique. Immunosensors serve as exciting alternatives to conventional methods, allowing “real-time” and multiple analyses that are essential characteristics for pathogen detection and much desired in health and safety control in the food industry.
KeywordsSalmonella Immunosensor Food safety Pathogen Rapid detection
The authors acknowledge the financial support of the CNPq (Award number: 475174/2012-7) and CAPES Brazilian agencies. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the US Department of Agriculture. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
Compliance with ethical standards
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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