Mixed consortia in bioprocesses: role of microbial interactions
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The utilization of mixed consortia or mixed culture has become a current research trend of applied microbiology, bioprocess engineering and biotechnology. The constituent microorganisms of such mixed cultures can jointly perform complex processes efficiently, yielding the desired product at an augmented rate, in comparison to monocultures. It is understandable that the interactions between the microbial partners in these mixed cultures are expected to have a significant impact on the combined performance of the microorganisms and the bioprocess as a whole. Prevalence of positive interactions (commensalism or mutualism) among microbial members of a mixed culture or consortia can significantly enhance the product outcome of the bioprocess, ensuring their industrial application and long-term stability. On the contrary, negative interaction (parasitism, predation or ammensalism) leads to elimination of microbial members from the consortia causing the destruction of community structure as well as disruption of cumulative performance. Therefore, a priori knowledge on the type of interaction between the microorganisms is also essential for the optimization of the performance of the designed consortia. This could only be achieved through the study of inter-microbial interaction prevailing in a mixed culture. In the present article, different bioprocess applications of mixed cultures, currently in practice along with types of positive microbial interactions involved, have been reviewed. Complexity of mixed cultures from the perspective of multiple types of intra-culture relationships has been explained in detail. Overall, the necessity for more in-depth research studies on “microbial interaction” in mixed culture bioprocesses has been stressed in the article.
KeywordsMicrobial consortia Bioprocessing Microbial interaction Commensalism Mutualism Strategic design
The authors sincerely acknowledge Jadavpur University for providing infrastructural facilities and access to subscribed scientific databases required for the preparation of the manuscript. The first author acknowledges the financial support extended by World Bank in the form of technical education quality improvement programme (TEQIP) phase II junior research fellowship. The authors are indebted to the learned reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions for the improvement of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests. The present article does not involve performance of any studies with human or animal participants.
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