Environmental evaluation of coexistence of denitrifying anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in a paddy field
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The nitrate-dependent denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) process, which is metabolized together by anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and NC10 phylum bacteria, is expected to be important for the global carbon and nitrogen cycles. However, there are little studies about the existence of this process and the functional microbes in environments. Therefore, the coexistence of DAMO archaea and bacteria in a paddy field was evaluated in this study. Next-generation sequencing showed that the two orders, Methanosarcinales and Nitrospirales, to which DAMO archaea and DAMO bacteria belong, were detected in the four soil samples. Then the in vitro experiments demonstrated both of nitrite- and nitrate-dependent DAMO activities, which confirmed the coexistence of DAMO archaea and DAMO bacteria. It was the first report about the coexistence of DAMO archaea and bacteria in a paddy field. Furthermore, anammox bacteria were detected in two of the four samples. The in vitro experiments did not show anammox activity in the initial period but showed low anammox activity after 20 days’ enrichment. These results implicated that anammox bacteria may coexist with DAMO microorganisms in this field, but at a very low percentage.
KeywordsDAMO archaea DAMO bacteria Anammox Coexistence Paddy field DAMO activity
The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from National Natural Science Foundation of China (51178444), National Hi-Technology Development 863 Program of China (2011AA060901), the Hundred-Talent Program of Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (wk2060190040), and the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (project # CityU 160110).
Compliance with ethical standards
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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