Comparative phenomics and targeted use of genomics reveals variation in carbon and nitrogen assimilation among different Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains
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Recent studies have suggested a correlation between genotype groups of Brettanomyces bruxellensis and their source of isolation. To further explore this relationship, the objective of this study was to assess metabolic differences in carbon and nitrogen assimilation between different B. bruxellensis strains from three beverages, including beer, wine, and soft drink, using Biolog Phenotype Microarrays. While some similarities of physiology were noted, many traits were variable among strains. Interestingly, some phenotypes were found that could be linked to strain origin, especially for the assimilation of particular α- and β-glycosides as well as α- and β-substituted monosaccharides. Based upon gene presence or absence, an α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase were found explaining the observed phenotypes. Further, using a PCR screen on a large number of isolates, we have been able to specifically link a genomic deletion to the beer strains, suggesting that this region may have a fitness cost for B. bruxellensis in certain fermentation systems such as brewing. More specifically, none of the beer strains were found to contain a β-glucosidase, which may have direct impacts on the ability for these strains to compete with other microbes or on flavor production.
Keywordsα-Glucosidase β-Glucosidase Biolog Dekkera bruxellensis Niche adaptation Phenotypic and genetic diversity
We are grateful to everybody who provided us with Brettanomyces strains. Further, we are grateful to Sofie Malfliet for her help with compiling the tables.
Compliance with ethical standards
Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest/Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals/ Informed consent: not applicable for this study.
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