Biopolymers for sample collection, protection, and preservation
- 465 Downloads
One of the principal challenges in the collection of biological samples from air, water, and soil matrices is that the target agents are not stable enough to be transferred from the collection point to the laboratory of choice without experiencing significant degradation and loss of viability. At present, there is no method to transport biological samples over considerable distances safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively without the use of ice or refrigeration. Current techniques of protection and preservation of biological materials have serious drawbacks. Many known techniques of preservation cause structural damages, so that biological materials lose their structural integrity and viability. We review applications of a novel bacterial preservation process, which is nontoxic and water soluble and allows for the storage of samples without refrigeration. The method is capable of protecting the biological sample from the effects of environment for extended periods of time and then allows for the easy release of these collected biological materials from the protective medium without structural or DNA damage. Strategies for sample collection, preservation, and shipment of bacterial, viral samples are described. The water-soluble polymer is used to immobilize the biological material by replacing the water molecules within the sample with molecules of the biopolymer. The cured polymer results in a solid protective film that is stable to many organic solvents, but quickly removed by the application of the water-based solution. The process of immobilization does not require the use of any additives, accelerators, or plastifiers and does not involve high temperature or radiation to promote polymerization.
KeywordsBiopolymer Acacia gum Trehalose Water Soil Air Pathogens
This study was supported by Air Force CRADA grant 13-268-SG-C13016. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the US Government.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
(MP4 6009 kb)
- Biomatrica (2013) Biostability http://www.biomatrica.com/index.html. Publisher
- Carvalho AS, Silva J, Ho P, Teixeira P, Malcata FXFX, Gibbs P (2004) Relevant factors for the preparation of freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria. International Dairy Journal In Press, Corrected ProofGoogle Scholar
- Davis SC, Diegel SW, Boundy RG (2014) Transportation energy data book: Edition 33 U.S. Department of Energy cta.ornl.gov/dataGoogle Scholar
- Dynalon (2011) Labware http://www.dynalabcorp.com/documents/Dynalon2011_LR.pdf.
- EIA (2012) Annual energy review http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/annual/showtext.cfm?t=ptb0303. US Energy Information Administration
- JECFA (1998) Gum arabic. Food and nutritional paper 52(Addendum 6). FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
- Lee SB, Crouse CA, Lline MC (2014) Optimizing storage and handling of DNA extracts. In: Shewale JG, Liu EH (eds) Forensic DNA analysis. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 19–38Google Scholar
- Meunier O, Hernandez C, Piroird M, Heilig R, Steinbach D, Freyd A (2005) Bacteriological sampling of surfaces: importance of the step of enrichment and the choice of the culture media. Ann Biol Clin (Paris) 63(5):481–486Google Scholar
- Mocak J, Jurasek P, Phillips GO, Varga S, Casadei E, Chikemai BN (1998) The classification of natural gums. X. Chemometric characterization of exudate gums that conform to the revised specification of the gum arabic for food use, and the identification of adulterants. Food Hydrocoll 12(2):141–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- NEWWA (2008) Sampling guide for first responders to drinking water contamination threats and incidents http://www.epa.gov/region1/eco/drinkwater/pdfs/1stRespondersGuide.pdf. New England Water Works Association
- ODH (2008) Environmental sample collection guide http://www.wvdhhr.org/labservices/shared/docs/bt/oh_state_laboratory_submission_guidelines.pdf. Ohio department of health laboratories
- Roger S (1994) Guide to sampling air, water, soil, and vegetation for chemical analysis. In: State of California Environmental Protection Agency DoPR (ed). vol EH 94–04. Environmental hazards Assessment Program, Sacramento, California, p 1–57Google Scholar
- Rojas-Tapias D, Sierra OO, Botía DR, Bonilla R (2015) Preservation of Azotobacter chroococcum vegetative cells in dry polymers. Univ Sci 20(2):201–207Google Scholar
- YETI (2013) Ice retention http://www.yeticoolers.com/pages/FAQ.html.