Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 99, Issue 13, pp 5391–5395 | Cite as

A novel approach for in vitro meat production

  • Muthuraman PanduranganEmail author
  • Doo Hwan Kim


The present review describes the possibility of in vitro meat production with the help of advanced co-culturing methods. In vitro meat production method could be a possible alternative for the conventional meat production. Originally, the research on in vitro meat production was initiated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for space voyages. The required key qualities for accepting in vitro meat for consumption would be good efficiency ratio, increased protein synthesis rate in skeletal muscles, and mimicking the conventional meat qualities. In vitro culturing of meat is possible with the use of skeletal muscle tissue engineering, stem cell, cell co-culture, and tissue culture methods. Co-culture of myoblast and fibroblast is believed as one of the major techniques for in vitro meat production. In our lab, we have co-cultured myoblast and fibroblast. We believe that a billion pounds of in vitro meat could be produced from one animal for consumption. However, we require a great deal of research on in vitro meat production.


Meat In vitro Stem cells Co-culture 



This study was supported by the KU-Smart Professor Program, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


  1. Allen RE, Sheehan SM, Taylor RG, Kendall TL, Rice GM (1995) Hepatocyte growth factor activates quiescent skeletal muscle satellite cells in vitro. J Cell Physiol 165:307–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benjaminson MA, Gilchriest JA, Lorenz M (2002) In vitro edible muscle protein production system (MPPS): stage 1, fish. Acta Astronautica 51:879–889PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boney CM, Moats-Staats BM, Stiles AD, D'Ercole AJ (1994) Expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding proteins during adipogenesis. Endocrinology 135:1863–1868PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bredahl L, Grunert KG, Fertin C (1998) Relating consumer perceptions of pork quality to physical product characteristics. Food Qual Prefer 9:8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cain F (2005) Artificial meat could be grown on a large scale. Universe TodayGoogle Scholar
  6. Cantini M, Massimino ML, Rapizzi E, Libera LD, Catani C, Carraro U (1994) Viability of myoblast-macrophage co-cultures. Basic Appl Myol 4:403–406Google Scholar
  7. Capper JL (2011) The environmental impact of beef production in the United States: 1977 compared with 2007. J Anim Sci 89:4249–4261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carraro U, Cantini M (1996) Control of cell proliferation by macrophage myoblast interactions. Basic Appl Myol 6:483–488Google Scholar
  9. CDC (2012) CDC estimates of foodborne illness in the United States. Accessed.
  10. Claeys E, De Smet S, Balcaen A, Raes K, Demeyer D (2004) Quantification of fresh meat peptides by SDS-PAGE in relation to ageing time and taste intensity. Meat Sci 67:281–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Collins CA, Zammit PS, Ruiz AP, Morgan JE, Partridge TA (2007) A population of myogenic stem cells that survives skeletal muscle aging. Stem Cells 25:885–894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Datar I, Betti M (2010) Possibilities for an in vitro meat production system. Inno Food Sci Emerg 11:13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dennis RG, Kosnik PE (2000) Excitability and isometric contractile properties of mammalian skeletal muscle constructs engineered in vitro. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 36:327–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Despommier D (2008) Vertical farm essay I. Vertical FarmGoogle Scholar
  15. Dodson MV, Mathison BA (1988) Comparison of ovine and rat muscle-derived satellite cells: response to insulin. Tissue Cell 20:909–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dodson MV, Vierck JL, Hossneff KL, Byrne K, McNamara JP (1997) The development and utility of a defined muscle and fat co-culture system. Tissue Cell 29:517–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Doumit ME, Cook DR, Merkel RA (1993) Fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor-BB stimulate proliferate of clonally derived porcine myogenic satellite cells. J Cell Physiol 157:326–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Egbert R, Borders C (2006) Achieving success with meat analogs. Food technol-ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  19. Ezashi T, Telugu BP, Alexenko AP, Sachdev S, Sinha S, Roberts RM (2009) Derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells from pig somatic cells. PNAS 106:10993–10998PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. FAO (2006) Livestock's long shadow-Environmental issues and options. FAO publicationsGoogle Scholar
  21. FAO (2011) World Livestock 2011. Livestock in food security. FAO publicationsGoogle Scholar
  22. Greger M (2007) The human/animal interface: emergence and resurgence of zoonotic infectious diseases. Crit Rev Microbiol 33:243–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jarett L, Wong EHA, Macaulay SL, Smith JA (1985) Insulin mediators from rat skeletal muscle has differential effects on insulin sensitive pathways of intact adipocytes. Science 227:533–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Key TJ, Davey GK, Appleby PN (1999) Health benefits of a vegetarian diet. P Nutri Soci 58:271–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kruglinski S, Wright K (2008) I'll have my burger petri-dish bred, with extra omega-3. DiscoverGoogle Scholar
  26. Kurzweil R (2005) The singularity is near. Penguin Books ISBN 0-14-303788-9Google Scholar
  27. Lau DCW, Shillabeer G, Li ZH, Wong KL, Varzaneh FE, Tough SC (1996) Paracrine interactions in adipose tissue development and growth. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 20:16–25Google Scholar
  28. Levine K (2008) Lab-grown meat a reality, but who will eat it?. National Public RadioGoogle Scholar
  29. Macintyre B (2007) Test-tube meat science’s next leap. The AustralianGoogle Scholar
  30. Masahiro K, Jongpil K, Kazue K, Mee-Hae K (2013) Preferential growth of skeletal myoblasts and fibroblasts in co-culture on a dendrimer-immobilized surface. J Biosci Bioeng 115:96–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mauro A (1961) Satellite cell of skeletal muscle fibers. J Biophy Biochem Cy 9:493–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McFarland DC, Doumit ME, Minshall RD (1988) The turkey myogenic satellite cell: optimization of in vitro proliferation and differentiation. Tissue Cell 20:899–908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mizuno Y, Chang H, Umeda K, Niwa A, Iwasa T, Awaya T, Fukada S, Yamamoto H, Yamanaka S, Nakahata T, Heike T (2010) Generation of skeletal muscle stem/progenitor cells from murine induced pluripotent stem cells. FASEB J 24:2245–2253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Muthuraman P (2014a) Effect of cortisol on caspases in the co-cultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 173:980–988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Muthuraman P (2014b) Effect of co-culturing on the myogenic and adipogenic marker gene expression. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 173:571–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Muthuraman P, Inho H (2014) Application of cell co-culture system to study fat and muscle cells. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:7359–7364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Muthuraman P, Ravikumar S (2013) Impact of stress hormone on adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 cells. Cytotechnology 66:619–624Google Scholar
  38. Muthuraman P, Dawoon J, Hwang IH (2012) Co-culture of C2C12 and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells alters gene expression of calpains, caspases and heat-shock proteins. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 48:577–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Muthuraman P, Hemalatha M, Ravikumar S, Vikramathithan J, Ganesh I, Ramkumar K (2013) Stress hormone on the mRNA expression of myogenin, MyoD, Myf5, PAX3 and PAX7. Cytotechnology 66:839–844Google Scholar
  40. Muthuraman P, Ravikumar S, Muthuviveganandavel V (2014) Effect of cortisol on calpains in the C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 172:3153–3162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pimentel D, Pimentel M (2003) Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment. Am J Clin Nutr 78:660S–663SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Rao N, Evans S, Stewart D, Spencer KH, Sheikh F, Hui EE, Christman KL (2013) Fibroblasts influence muscle progenitor differentiation and alignment in contact independent and dependent manners in organized co-culture devices. Biomed Microdevices 15:161–169PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ravikumar S, Muthuraman P (2014) Cortisol effect on heat shock proteins in the c2c12 and 3t3-l1 cells. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 50:581–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Roelen BA, Lopes SM (2008) Of stem cells and gametes: similarities and differences. Curr Med Chem 15:1249–1256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Siegelbaum DJ (2008) In search of a test-tube hamburger. TimeGoogle Scholar
  46. Takahashi K, Yamanaka S (2006) Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. Cell 126:663–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Temple J (2009) The future of food: the no-kill carnivore. Portfolio.comGoogle Scholar
  48. Tonsor GT, Olynk NJ (2011) Impacts of animal well-being and welfare media on meat demand. J Agri Econo 62(1):13Google Scholar
  49. Tuomisto HL, de Mattos MJ (2011) Environmental impacts of cultured meat production. Environ Sci Technol 45:6117–6123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhang Y, Li H, Lian Z, Li N (2010) Normal fibroblasts promote myodifferentiation of myoblasts from sex-linked dwarf chicken via up-regulation of β1 integrin. Cell Biol Int 34:1119–1127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Bioresources and Food ScienceKonkuk UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations