Archaeal community diversity in municipal waste landfill sites
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Despite the pivotal role of archaea in methane production in landfills, the identity, ecology, and functional diversity of these microorganisms and their link to environmental factors remain largely unknown. We collected 11 landfill leachate samples from six geographically distinct landfills of different ages in China and analyzed the archaeal community by bar-coded 454 pyrosequencing. We retrieved 121,797 sequences from a total of 167,583 sequences (average length of 464 bp). The archaeal community was geographically structured, and nonabundant taxa primarily contributed to the observed dissimilarities. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) suggested that the total phosphorous (TP), nitrate, and conductivity are important drivers for shaping the archaeal community. The hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales greatly dominated 9 of 11 samples, ranging from 83.7 to 99.5 %. These methanogens also dominated the remaining two samples, accounting for 70.3 and 58.8 %, respectively. Interestingly, for all of the studied Chinese landfills, 16S rRNA analysis indicated the predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens.
KeywordsLandfill Landfill leachate Archaeal community Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis
The authors acknowledge the Chinese Academy of Science, China, for financial support of the research, under contract number KZCX2-XB3-14. We thank the anonymous reviewers for offering critical suggestions, which greatly improved the manuscript.
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