Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 99, Issue 1, pp 501–515 | Cite as

SUMO expression shortens the lag phase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast growth caused by complex interactive effects of major mixed fermentation inhibitors found in hot-compressed water-treated lignocellulosic hydrolysate

  • Lahiru N. Jayakody
  • Masafumi Kadowaki
  • Keisuke Tsuge
  • Kenta Horie
  • Akihiro Suzuki
  • Nobuyuki Hayashi
  • Hiroshi Kitagaki
Bioenergy and biofuels


The complex inhibitory effects of inhibitors present in lignocellulose hydrolysate suppress the ethanol fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although the interactive inhibitory effects play important roles in the actual hydrolysate, few studies have investigated glycolaldehyde, the key inhibitor of hot-compressed water-treated lignocellulose hydrolysate. Given this challenge, we investigated the interactive effects of mixed fermentation inhibitors, including glycolaldehyde. First, we confirmed that glycolaldehyde was the most potent inhibitor in the hydrolysate and exerted interactive inhibitory effects in combination with major inhibitors. Next, through genome-wide analysis and megavariate data modeling, we identified SUMOylation as a novel potential mechanism to overcome the combinational inhibitory effects of fermentation inhibitors. Indeed, overall SUMOylation was increased and Pgk1, which produces an ATP molecule in glycolysis by substrate-level phosphorylation, was SUMOylated and degraded in response to glycolaldehyde. Augmenting the SUMO-dependent ubiquitin system in the ADH1-expressing strain significantly shortened the lag phase of growth, released cells from G2/M arrest, and improved energy status and glucose uptake in the inhibitor-containing medium. In summary, our study was the first to establish SUMOylation as a novel platform for regulating the lag phase caused by complex fermentation inhibitors.


SUMOylation Yeast Glycolaldehyde Bioethanol 



We would like to acknowledge Dr. Makoto Kitabatake at Kyoto University for providing ubiquitin-expressing plasmid and Prof. Hiroshi Takagi at Nara Institute of Technology for the valuable discussions. Part of this study was financially supported by JSPS KAKENHI 24580117 (to HK).

Conflict of interest

Authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

253_2014_6174_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (959 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 959 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lahiru N. Jayakody
    • 1
    • 2
  • Masafumi Kadowaki
    • 2
  • Keisuke Tsuge
    • 3
  • Kenta Horie
    • 2
  • Akihiro Suzuki
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nobuyuki Hayashi
    • 1
    • 4
  • Hiroshi Kitagaki
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Applied Biosciences, United Graduate School of Agricultural SciencesKagoshima UniversityKagoshima CityJapan
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureSaga UniversitySagaJapan
  3. 3.Industrial Technology Center of SagaSagaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Applied Biochemistry and Food Science, Faculty of AgricultureSaga UniversitySagaJapan

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