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Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 98, Issue 16, pp 7223–7232 | Cite as

Catabolism of terbuthylazine by mixed bacterial culture originating from s-triazine-contaminated soil

  • Tamara Jurina
  • Senka Terzić
  • Marijan Ahel
  • Sanja Stipičević
  • Darko Kontrec
  • Želimir Kurtanjek
  • Nikolina Udiković-KolićEmail author
Environmental biotechnology

Abstract

The s-triazine herbicide terbuthylazine (TERB) has been used as the main substitute of atrazine in many EU countries for more than 10 years. However, the ecological consequences of this substitution are still not fully understood. Since the fate of triazine herbicides is primarily dependent on microbial degradation, in this paper, we investigated the ability of a mixed bacterial culture, M3-T, originating from s-triazine-contaminated soil, to degrade TERB in liquid culture and soil microcosms. The M3-T culture grown in mineral medium with TERB as the N source and citrate as the C source degraded 50 mg L−1 of TERB within 3 days of incubation. The culture was capable of degrading TERB as the sole C and N source, though at slower degradation kinetics. A thorough LC-MS analysis of the biodegradation media showed the formation of hydroxyterbuthylazine (TERB-OH) and N-t-butylammelide (TBA) as major metabolites, and desethylterbuthylazine (DET), hydroxydesethylterbuthylazine (DET-OH) and cyanuric acid (CA) as minor metabolites in the TERB degradation pathway. TBA was identified as a bottleneck in the catabolic pathway leading to its transient accumulation in culture media. The supplementation of glucose as the exogenous C source had no effect on TBA degradation, whereas citrate inhibited its disappearance. The addition of M3-T to sterile soil artificially contaminated with TERB at 3 mg kg−1 of soil resulted in an accelerated TERB degradation with t 1/2 value being about 40 times shorter than that achieved by the native microbial community. Catabolic versatility of M3-T culture makes it a promising seed culture for accelerating biotransformation processes in s-triazine-contaminated environment.

Keywords

Terbuthylazine Biodegradation Bacterial culture s-Triazines 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was financially supported by the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports (Project nos. 098-0982934-2712 and 058-1252086-0589). We thank Prof. Zvonimir Ostojić from the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb for providing soil from the experimental station in Šašinovečki Lug. We further thank Dr. Neda Vdović from Rudjer Bošković Institute and the staff of the Department of Soil Amelioration and Department of General Agronomy of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, for their cooperation in soil characterization.

Supplementary material

253_2014_5774_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (480 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 480 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tamara Jurina
    • 3
  • Senka Terzić
    • 1
  • Marijan Ahel
    • 1
  • Sanja Stipičević
    • 4
  • Darko Kontrec
    • 2
  • Želimir Kurtanjek
    • 3
  • Nikolina Udiković-Kolić
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division for Marine and Environmental ResearchRudjer Bošković InstituteZagrebCroatia
  2. 2.Division of Organic Chemistry and BiochemistryRudjer Bošković InstituteZagrebCroatia
  3. 3.Faculty of Food Technology and BiotechnologyUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  4. 4.Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, ZagrebZagrebCroatia

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