Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 98, Issue 13, pp 6073–6084 | Cite as

Analyzing the relation between the microbial diversity of DaQu and the turbidity spoilage of traditional Chinese vinegar

  • Pan Li
  • Sha Li
  • Lili Cheng
  • Lixin Luo
Applied microbial and cell physiology


Vinegar is a traditional fermented condiment, and the microbial diversity of DaQu makes the quality of vinegar products. Recently, turbidity spoilage of vinegar sharply tampered with the quality of vinegar. In this study, the relation between the microbial diversity of DaQu and turbidity spoilage of vinegar was analyzed by plating technique, PCR–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The 16S rRNA sequencing and DGGE analysis indicated that Bacillus (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and Bacillus thuringiensis) and Lactobacillus (including Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Lactobacillus pobuzihii) species were the dominant contaminants in vinegar products. Meanwhile, DGGE analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in DaQu belonged to genera Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Weissella, Saccharopolyspora, Enterobacter, and Pantoea. However, only two yeast species (Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera) and seven mold species including Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus candidus, Rhizopus microspores, Eurotium herbariorum, Absidia corymbifera, and Eupenicillium javanicum were detected in the DaQu. The population level of fungi was below 5 log CFU/g in DaQu. The chemical and physical properties of vinegar and sediments were also determined. On the basis of a combined microbial diversity-chemical analysis, we demonstrated that turbidity spoilage of vinegar was a result of cooperation among the low population level and abundance of fungal species in DaQu, the suitable climate conditions, and the contaminants in vinegar. This is the first report to analyze the relation between the microbial diversity of DaQu and turbidity spoilage of vinegar.


Vinegar Turbidity spoilage PCR–DGGE Microbial diversity DaQu 



This project was supported by the National Natural Foundation of China (grant 31271924).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Bioscience and BioengineeringSouth China University of TechnologyGuangzhouChina

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