Decolorization of textile azo dye and Congo red by an isolated strain of the dissimilatory manganese-reducing bacterium Shewanella xiamenensis BC01
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Shewanella xiamenensis BC01 (SXM) was isolated from sediment collected off Xiamen, China and was identified based on the phylogenetic tree of 16S rRNA sequences and the gyrB gene. This strain showed high activity in the decolorization of textile azo dyes, especially methyl orange, reactive red 198, and recalcitrant dye Congo red, decolorizing at rates of 96.2, 93.0, and 87.5 %, respectively. SXM had the best performance for the specific decolorization rate (SDR) of azo dyes compared to Proteus hauseri ZMd44 and Aeromonas hydrophila NIU01 strains and had an SDR similar to Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in Congo red decolorization. Luria-Bertani medium was the optimal culture medium for SXM, as it reached a density of 4.69 g-DCW L−1 at 16 h. A mediator (manganese) significantly enhanced the biodegradation and flocculation of Congo red. Further analysis with UV–VIS, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, and Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry demonstrated that Congo red was cleaved at the azo bond, producing 4,4′-diamino-1,1′-biphenyl and 1,2′-diamino naphthalene 4-sulfonic acid. Finally, SEM results revealed that nanowires exist between the bacteria, indicating that SXM degradation of the azo dyes was coupled with electron transfer through the nanowires. The purpose of this work is to explore the utilization of a novel, dissimilatory manganese-reducing bacterium in the treatment of wastewater containing azo dyes.
KeywordsShewanella xiamenens Decolorization Azo dyes Manganese Congo red
The authors are grateful to the financial support by the Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (21206141) and the Fujian Provincial Department of Science and Technology (2012I0009). The authors also sincerely appreciate the academic connection program between Xiamen University (China) and National I-Lan University (Taiwan) in 2011–2013 for the study.
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