Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 96, Issue 4, pp 863–873 | Cite as

Potential uses of spent mushroom substrate and its associated lignocellulosic enzymes

  • Chia-Wei Phan
  • Vikineswary SabaratnamEmail author


Mushroom industries generate a virtually in-exhaustible supply of a co-product called spent mushroom substrate (SMS). This is the unutilised substrate and the mushroom mycelium left after harvesting of mushrooms. As the mushroom industry is steadily growing, the volume of SMS generated annually is increasing. In recent years, the mushroom industry has faced challenges in storing and disposing the SMS. The obvious solution is to explore new applications of SMS. There has been considerable discussion recently about the potentials of using SMS for production of value-added products. One of them is production of lignocellulosic enzymes such as laccase, xylanase, lignin peroxidase, cellulase and hemicellulase. This paper reviews scientific research and practical applications of SMS as a readily available and cheap source of enzymes for bioremediation, animal feed and energy feedstock.


Spent mushroom substrate Spent mushroom compost Lignocellulosic enzyme Bioremediation Animal feed Energy feedstock 



This work was funded by the University of Malaya and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) (grant number 01-02-03-1002; 01-02-03-0143). This review was carried out with the support of a Postgraduate Research Grant (PV007/2012A).


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mushroom Research Centre, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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