Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 95, Issue 1, pp 13–27 | Cite as

Effect of impurities in biodiesel-derived waste glycerol on the performance and feasibility of biotechnological processes

  • Afroditi Chatzifragkou
  • Seraphim PapanikolaouEmail author


The rapid development of biodiesel production technology has led to the generation of tremendous quantities of glycerol wastes, as the main by-product of the process. Stoichiometrically, it has been calculated that for every 100 kg of biodiesel, 10 kg of glycerol are produced. Based on the technology imposed by various biodiesel plants, glycerol wastes may contain numerous kinds of impurities such as methanol, salts, soaps, heavy metals, and residual fatty acids. This fact often renders biodiesel-derived glycerol unprofitable for further purification. Therefore, the utilization of crude glycerol though biotechnological means represents a promising alternative for the effective management of this industrial waste. This review summarizes the effect of various impurities–contaminants that are found in biodiesel-derived crude glycerol upon its conversion by microbial strains in biotechnological processes. Insights are given concerning the technologies that are currently applied in biodiesel production, with emphasis to the impurities that are added in the composition of crude glycerol, through each step of the production process. Moreover, extensive discussion is made in relation with the impact of the nature of impurities upon the performances of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms, during crude glycerol bioconversions into a variety of high added-value metabolic products. Finally, aspects concerning ways of crude glycerol treatment for the removal of inhibitory contaminants as reported in the literature are given and comprehensively discussed.


Crude glycerol Biodiesel Impurities Biotechnological conversions Fermentations 



This research was financially supported by: (1) the State Scholarship Foundation (Athens, Greece) and DAAD (project IKYDA “Development of a novel bioconversion process involving a defined microbial community”); (2) the EU (FP7 Program “Propanergy—Integrated bioconversion of glycerine into value-added products and biogas at pilot plant scale”, grant number: 212671); and (3) the project entitled “Bio-refinery development utilizing residues from biodiesel production processes for the production of biodegradable polymers and value-added products” (Acronym “BIOREF”, project number: 715-12/11/2009) funded by GSRT (Greek Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs).


  1. Adamczak M, Bornscheuer UT, Bednarski W (2009) The application of biotechnological methods for the synthesis of biodiesel. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 111(8):800–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Zuhair S (2007) Production of biodiesel: possibilities and challenges. Biofuels Bioprod Bioref 1:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amaral PF, Ferreira TF, Fontes GC, Coelho MAZ (2009) Glycerol valorization: new biotechnological routes. Food Bioprod Proc 87:179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anand P, Saxena RK (2011) A comparative study of solvent-assisted pretreatment of biodiesel derived crude glycerol on growth and 1,3-propanediol production from Citrobacter freundii. New Biotechnol 29(2):199–205Google Scholar
  5. André A, Chatzifragkou A, Diamantopoulou P, Sarris D, Philippoussis A, Galiotou-Panayotou M, Komaitis M, Papanikolaou S (2009) Biotechnological conversions of bio-diesel derived crude glycerol by Yarrowia lipolytica strains. Eng Life Sci 9:468–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. André A, Diamantopoulou P, Philippoussis A, Sarris D, Komaitis M, Papanikolaou S (2010) Biotechnological conversions of bio-diesel derived water glycerol into added-value compounds by higher fungi: production of biomass, single cell oil and oxalic acid. Ind Crop Prod 31:407–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andreeßen B, Lange AB, Robenek H, Steinbüchel A (2010) Conversion of glycerol to poly(3-hydroxypropionate) in recombinant Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:622–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ashby RD, Solainman DKY, Foglia TA (2004) Bacterial poly (hydrohyalkanoate) polymer production from the biodiesel co-product stream. J Polym Environ 12:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ashby RD, Nuñez A, Solaiman DKY, Foglia TA (2005) Sophorolipid biosynthesis from a biodiesel co-production stream. J Am Oil Chem Soc 82:625–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ashby RD, Solaiman DKY, Strahan GD (2011) Efficient utilization of crude glycerol as fermentation substrate in the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) biopolymers. J Am Oil Chem Soc 88:949–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Athalye SK, Garcia RA, Wen Z (2009) Use of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the fungus Pythium irregulare. J Agric Food Chem 57:2739–2744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barbirato F, Himmi EH, Conte T, Bories A (1998) 1,3-Propanediol production by fermentation: an interesting way to valorize glycerin from the ester and ethanol industries. Ind Crop Prod 7:281–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bell BM, Briggs JR, Campbell RM, Cahmbers SM, Gaarenstroom PD, Hippler JG, Hook BD, Kearns K, Kenney JM, Kruper WJ, Schreck DJ, Theriault CN, Wolfe CP (2008) Glycerin as a renewable feedstock for epichlorohydrin production. The GTE process. Clean-Soil Air Water 36:657–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bellou S, Moustogianni A, Makri A, Aggelis G (2012) Lipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids synthesized by zygomycetes grown on glycerol. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 166:146–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Biebl H, Menzel K, Zeng AP, Deckwer WD (1999) Microbial production of 1,3-propanediol. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 52:289–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carrero A, van Grieken R, Paredes B (2011) Hybrid zeolitic-mesostructured materials as supports of metallocene polymerization catalysts. Catal Today 179:115–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cavalheiro JMBT, de Almeida MCMD, Grandfils C, da Fonseca MMR (2009) Poly(3-hydrobutyrate) production by Cupriavidus necator using waste glycerol. Process Biochem 44:509–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cavalheiro JMBT, Raopso RS, de Almeida MCMD, Cesário MT, Sevrin C, Grandfils C, da Fonseca MMR (2012) Effect of cultivation parameters on the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-4-hydroxybutyrate-3-hydroxyvalerate) by Cupriavidus necator using glycerol. Bioresource Technol 111:391–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chatzifragkou A, Dietz D, Komaitis M, Zeng AP, Papanikolaou S (2010) Effect of biodiesel-derived waste glycerol impurities on biomass and 1,3-propanediol production of Clostridium butyricum VPI 1718. Biotechnol Bioeng 107:76–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chatzifragkou A, Makri A, Belka A, Bellou S, Mavrou M, Mastoridou M, Mystrioti P, Onjaro G, Aggelis G, Papanikolaou S (2011a) Biotechnological conversions of biodiesel derived waste glycerol by yeast and fungal species. Energy 36:1097–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chatzifragkou A, Papanikolaou S, Dietz D, Doulgeraki AI, Nychas GJE, Zeng AP (2011b) Production of 1,3-propanediol by Clostridium butyricum growing on biodiesel-derived crude glycerol through a non-sterilized fermentation process. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 91:101–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chatzifragkou A, Aggelis G, Komaits M, Zeng AP, Papanikolaou S (2011c) Impact of anaerobiosis strategy and bioreactor geometry on the biochemical response of Clostridium butyricum VPI 1718 during 1,3-propanediol fermentation. Bioresource Technol 102:10625–10632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chatzifragkou A, Petrou I, Gardeli C, Komaitis M, Papanikolaou S (2011d) Effect of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil on growth and lipid profile of Yarrowia lipolytica cultivated on glycerol-based media. J Am Oil Chem Soc 88:1955–1964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chee JY, Tan Y, Samian MR, Sudesh K (2010) Isolation and characterization of a Burkholderia sp. USM (JCM15050) capable of producing polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)from triglycerides, fatty acids and glycerols. J Polym Environ 18:584–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chi Z, Pyle D, Wen Z, Frear C, Chen S (2007) A laboratory study of producing docosahexaenoic acid from biodiesel-waste glycerol by microalgal fermentation. Process Biochem 42:1537–1545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Choi WJ, Hartono MR, Chan WH, Yeo SS (2011) Ethanol production from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by newly isolated Kluyvera cryocrescens. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 89:1255–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chouhan APS, Sarma AK (2011) Modern heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production: a comprehensive review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 15:4378–4399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. da Silva GP, Mack M, Contiero J (2009) Glycerol: a promising and abundant carbon source for industrial microbiology. Biotechnol Adv 27:30–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dedyukhina EG, Chistyakova TI, Kamzolova SV, Vinter MV, Vainshtein MB (2012) Arachidonic acid synthesis by glycerol-grown Mortierella alpina. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol. doi: 10.1002/ejlt.201100360
  30. Demirbas A (2006) Biodiesel production via non-catalytic SCF method and biodiesel fuel characteristics. Energ Convers Manag 47:2271–2282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Demirbas A, Kara H (2006) New options for conversion of vegetable oils to alternative fuels. Energy sources part A: recovery, utilization & environmental effects. Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 619-626Google Scholar
  32. Di Serio M, Tesser R, Pengmei L, Santacesaria E (2007) Heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production. Energy Fuel 22:207–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fjerbaek L, Christensen KV, Norddahl B (2009) A review of the current state of biodiesel production using enzymatic transesterification. Biotechnol Bioeng 102:1298–1315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Forrest AK, Sierra R, Holtzapple MT (2010) Effect of biodiesel glycerol type and fermentor configuration on mixed-acid fermentations. Bioresource Technol 101:9185–9189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Furusawa H, Koyama N (2004) Effect of fatty acids on the membrane potential of an alkaliphilic bacillus. Curr Microbiol 48:196–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ghosh D, Tourigny A, Hallenbeck PC (2012) New stoichiometric reforming of biodiesel derived crude glycerol to hydrogen by photofermentation. Int J Hydrogen Energ 37:2273–2277Google Scholar
  37. González-Pajuelo M, Andrade JC, Vasconcelos I (2004) Production of 1,3-propanediol by Clostridium butyricum VPI 3266 using a synthetic medium and raw glycerol. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 31:442–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. González-Pajuelo M, Meynial-Salles I, Mendes F, Andrade JC, Vasconcelos I, Soucaille P (2005) Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for the industrial production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol. Metab Eng 7:329–336Google Scholar
  39. Grabbe E, Nolasco-Hipolito C, Kobayashi G, Sonomoto K, Ishizaki A (2001) Biodiesel production from crude palm oil and evaluation of butanol extraction and fuel properties. Process Biochem 37:64–71Google Scholar
  40. Günzel B, Yonsel S, Deckwer WD (1991) Fermentative production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol by Clostridium butyricum up to a scale of 2 m2. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 36:289–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Habe H, Shimada Y, Fukuoka T, Kitamoto D, Itagaki M, Watanabe K, Yanagishita H, Sakaki K (2009) Production of glyceric acid by Gluconobacter sp. NBRC3259 using raw glycerol. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 73:1799–1805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hájek M, Skopal F (2010) Treatment of glycerol formed by biodiesel production. Bioresource Technol 101:3232–3245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hanh HD, Dong NT, Okitsu K, Nishimura R, Maeda Y (2008) Biodiesel production through transesterification of triolein with various alcohols in an ultrasonic field. Renew Energy 34:766–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. He H, Wang T, Zhu S (2007) Continuous production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oil using supercritical methanol process. Fuel 86:442–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Helwani Z, Othman MR, Aziz N, Fernando WJN, Kim J (2009) Technologies for production of biodiesel focusing on green catalytic techniques: a review. Fuel Proc Technol 90:1502–1514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hirschmann S, Baganz K, Koschik I, Vorlop KD (2005) Development of an integrated bioconversion process for the production of 1,3-propanediol from raw glycerol waters. Landbauforsch Volk 55:261–267Google Scholar
  47. Homann T, Tag C, Biebl H, Deckwer WD, Schink B (1990) Fermentation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella and Citrobacter strains. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 53:435–440Google Scholar
  48. Huang H, Gong CS, Tsao GT (2002) Production of 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 98–100:687–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ibrahim MHA, Steinbüchel A (2010) Zobellella denitrificans strain MW1, a newly isolated bacterium suitable for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production from glycerol. J Appl Microbiol 108:214–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Imandi SB, Bandaru VVR, Somalanka SR, Garapati HR (2007) Optimization of medium constituents for the production of citric acid from byproduct glycerol using Doehlert experimental design. Enzym Microb Technol 40:1367–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ito T, Nakashimada Y, Senba K, Matsui T, Nishio N (2005) Hydrogen and ethanol production from glycerol-containing wastes discharged after biodiesel manufacturing process. J Biosci Bioeng 100:260–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Johnson DT, Taconi KA (2007) The glycerin glut: Options for the value-added conversion of crude glycerol resulting from biodiesel production. Environ Prog 26:338–348Google Scholar
  53. Kamzolova SV, Fatykhova AR, Dedyukhina EG, Anastassiadis SG, Golovchenko NP, Morgunov IG (2011) Citric acid production by yeast grown on glycerol-containing waste from biodiesel industry. Food Technol Biotechnol 49:65–74Google Scholar
  54. Kodicek E, Worden AN (1945) The effect of unsaturated fatty acids on Lactobacillus helveticus and other Gram-positive micro-organisms. Biochem J 39:78–85Google Scholar
  55. Koller M, Bona R, Braunegg G, Hermann C, Horvat P, Kroutil M, Martinz J, Neto J, Pereire L, Varila P (2005) Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from agricultural waste and surplus materials. Biomacromolecules 6:561–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Koutinas AA, Wang RH, Webb C (2007) The biochemurgist–bioconversion of agricultural raw materials for chemical production. Biofuels Bioprod Bioref 1:24–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kuhnert P, Scholten E, Haefner S, Mayor D, Frey I (2009) Basfia succinicproducens gen. nov., sp. Nov., a new member of the family Pasteurellaceae isolated from bovine rumen. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:44–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kusdiana D, Saka S (2001) Kinetics of transesterification in rapeseed oil to biodiesel fuel as treated in supercritical methanol. Fuel 80:693–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kusdiyantini E, Gaudin P, Goma G, Blanc PJ (1998) Growth kinetics and astaxanthin production of Phaffia rhodozyma on glycerol as a carbon source during batch fermentation. Biotechnol Lett 20:929–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Leung DYC, Wu X, Leung MKH (2010) A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification. Appl Energy 87:1083–1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Liang Y, Cui Y, Trushenski J, Blackburn JW (2010) Converting crude glycerol from yellow grease to lipids through yeast fermentation. Bioresource Technol 101:7581–7586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lin SKC, Du C, Koutinas A, Wang R, Webb C (2008) Substrate and product inhibition kinetics in succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes. Biochem Eng J 41:128–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Liu T, Koh CMJ, Ji L (2011) Bioconversion of crude glycerol to glycolipids in Ustilago maydis. Bioresource Technol 102:3927–3933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Luque R, Herrero-Davila L, Campelo JM, Clark JH, Hidalgo JM, Luna D, Marinas JM, Romero AA (2008) Biofuels: a technological perspective. Energy Environ Sci 1:542–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Marchetti JM, Miguel VU, Errazu AF (2007) Possible methods for biodiesel production. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 11:1300–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Martelli HL, da Silva IM, Souza NO, Pomeroy D (1992) Glycerol as substrate for biomass and β-carotene production by Rhodotorula lactosa. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 8:635–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Matzouridou F (2009) The potential of raw glycerol in the production of food grade carotenoids by fungi. In: Aggelis G (ed) Microbial conversions of raw glycerol. Nova Science, New York, pp 101–124Google Scholar
  68. Mantzouridou F, Naziri E, Tsimidou MZ (2008) Industrial glycerol as a supplementary carbon source in the production of β-carotene by Blakeslea trispora. J Agric Food Chem 56:2668–2675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mbaraka IK, Shanks BH (2006) Conversion of oils and fats using advanced mesoporous heterogeneous catalysts. JAOCS 83:79–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Meesters PAEP, Huijberts GNM, Eggink G (1996) High cell density cultivation of the lipid accumulating yeast Cryptococcus curvatus using glycerol as a carbon source. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 45:575–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Menzel K, Zeng AP, Deckwer WD (1997) High concentration and productivity of 1,3-propanediol from continuous fermentation of glycerol by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Enzyme Microb Technol 20:82–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Metsoviti M, Paramithiotis S, Drosinos EH, Galiotou-Panayotou M, Nychas GJE, Zeng AP, Papanikolaou S (2012) Screening of bacterial strains capable of converting biodiesel-derived raw glycerol into 1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol and ethanol. Eng Life Sci 12:57–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Moon C, Ahn JH, Kim SW, Sang BI, Um Y (2010) Effect of biodiesel-derived raw glycerol on 1,3-propanediol production by different microorganisms. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 161:502–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Morgunov IG, Kamzolova SV, Perevoznikova OA, Shishkanova NV, Finogenova TV (2004) Pyruvic acid production by a thiamine auxotroph of Yarrowia lipolytica. Process Biochem 39(11):1469–1474Google Scholar
  75. Moser BR (2011) Biodiesel production, properties, and feedstocks. In: Tomes D, Lakshmanan P, Songstad D (eds) Biofuels. Springer, New York, pp 285–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mothes C, Schnorpfeil C, Ackermann JU (2007) Production of PHB from crude glycerol. Eng Life Sci 7:475–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mu Y, Teng H, Zhang DJ, Wang W, Xiu ZL (2006) Microbial production of 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae using crude glycerol biodiesel preparations. Biotechnol Lett 28:1755–1759Google Scholar
  78. Musiał I, Rymowicz W (2009) Biodiesel by-products used as substrates for oxalic acid production by Aspergillus niger. In: Aggelis G (ed) Microbial conversions of raw glycerol. Nova Science, New York, pp 31–40Google Scholar
  79. Ngo TA, Kim MS, Sim SJ (2011) High-yield biohydrogen production from biodiesel manufacturing waste by Thermotoga neapolitana. Int J Hydrogen Energy 36:5836–5842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nielsen PM, Brask J, Fjerbaek L (2008) Enzymatic biodiesel production: technical and economical considerations. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 110:692–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pagliaro M, Rossi M (2010) Glycerol: properties and production. In: Pagliaro M, Rossi M (eds) The future of glycerol, 2nd edn. The Royal Society of Chemistry, RCS, UK, pp 1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Papanikolaou S (2009) Microbial conversion of glycerol into 1,3-propanediol: glycerol assimilation, biochemical events related with 1,3-propanediol biosynthesis and biochemical engineering of the process. In: Aggelis G (ed) Microbial conversions of raw glycerol. Nova Science, New York, pp 137–168Google Scholar
  83. Papanikolaou S, Aggelis G (2002) Lipid production by Yarrowia lipolytica growing on industrial glycerol in a single-stage continuous culture. Bioresource Technol 82:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Papanikolaou S, Aggelis G (2003) Modeling aspects of the biotechnological valorization of raw glycerol: production of citric acid by Yarrowia lipolytica and 1,3-propanediol by Clostridium butyricum. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 78:542–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Papanikolaou S, Aggelis G (2009) Biotechnological valorization of biodiesel derived glycerol waste through production of single cell oil and citric acid by Yarrowia lipolytica. Lipid Technol 21:83–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Papanikolaou S, Aggelis G (2010) Yarrowia lipolytica: a model organism used for the production of tailor-made lipids. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 112:639–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Papanikolaou S, Aggelis G (2011a) Lipids of oleaginous yeasts. Part I: Biochemistry of single cell oil production. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 113:1031–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Papanikolaou S, Aggelis G (2011b) Lipids of oleaginous yeasts. Part II: Technology and potential applications. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 113:1052–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Papanikolaou S, Ruiz-Sanchez P, Pariset B, Blanchard F, Fick M (2000) High production of 1,3-propanediol from industrial glycerol by a newly isolated Clostridium butyricum strain. J Biotechnol 77:191–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Papanikolaou S, Muniglia L, Chevalot I, Aggelis G, Marc I (2002a) Yarrowia lipolytica as a potential producer of citric acid from raw glycerol. J Appl Microbiol 92:737–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Papanikolaou S, Chevalot I, Komaitis M, Marc I, Aggelis G (2002b) Single cell oil production by Yarrowia lipolytica growing on an industrial derivative of animal fat in batch cultures. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 58:308–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Papanikolaou S, Muniglia L, Chevalot I, Aggelis G, Marc I (2003) Accumulation of a cocoa-butter-like lipid by Yarrowia lipolytica cultivated on agro-industrial residues. Curr Microbiol 46:124–130Google Scholar
  93. Papanikolaou S, Fick M, Aggelis G (2004) The effect of raw glycerol concentration on the production of 1,3-propanediol by Clostridium butyricum. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 79:1189–1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Papanikolaou S, Fakas S, Fick M, Chevalot I, Galiotou-Panayotou M, Komaitis M, Marc I, Aggelis G (2008) Biotechnological valorization of raw glycerol discharged after bio-diesel (fatty acid methyl esters) manufacturing process: production of 1,3-propanediol, citric acid and single cell oil. Biomass Bioenergy 32:60–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Petitdemange E, Dürr C, Abbad Andaloussi S, Raval G (1995) Fermentation of raw glycerol to 1,3-propanediol by new strains of Clostridium butyricum. J Ind Microbiol 15:498–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Pflugmacher U, Gottschalk G (1994) Development of an immobilized cell reactor for the production of 1,3-propanediol by Citrobacter freundii. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 41:313–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Posada JA, Rincón LE, Cardona CA (2012) Design and analysis of biorefineries based on raw glycerol: addressing the glycerol problem. Bioresource Technol 111:282–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pyle D, Garcia R, Wen Z (2008) Producing docosahexanoic acid-rich algae from biodiesel derived-crude glycerol: effects of impurities on DHA production and algal biomass composition. J Agric Food Chem 56:3933–3939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ratledge C, Wynn JP (2002) The biochemistry and molecular biology of lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms. Adv Appl Microbiol 51:1–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Razavi SH, Seyed MM, Hassan MY, Marc I (2007) Fatty acid and carotenoid production by Sporobolomyces ruberrimus when using technical glycerol and ammonium sulfate. J Microbiol Biotechnol 17:1591–1597Google Scholar
  101. Rehman A, Matsimura M, Nomura N, Sato S (2008) Growth and 1,3-propanediol production on pre-treated sunflower oil bio-diesel raw glycerol using a strict anaerobe-Clostridium butyricum. Curr Res Bacteriol 1:7–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Reimann A, Biebl H, Deckwer WD (1998) Production of 1,3-propanediol by Clostridium butyricum in continuous culture with cell recycling. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 49:359–363Google Scholar
  103. Rivaldi JD, Sarrouh BF, da Silva SS (2009) Development of biotechnological processes using glycerol from biodiesel production. In: Mendez-Vilas A (ed) Current research topics in applied microbiology and microbial biotechnology. World Scientific, Singapore, pp 429–433Google Scholar
  104. Royon D, Daz M, Ellenrieder G, Locatelli S (2006) Enzymatic production of biodiesel from cotton seed oil using t-butanol as a solvent. Bioresource Technol 98:648–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rymowicz W, Rywińska A, Żarowska B, Juszczyk P (2006) Citric acid production by acetate mutants of Yarrowia lipolytica. Chem Pap 60(5):391–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rymowicz W, Rywińska A, Gładkowski W (2008) Simultaneous production of citric acid and erythritol from crude glycerol by Yarrowia lipolytica Wratislavia K1. Chem Pap 62:239–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rymowicz W, Fatykhova AR, Kamzolova SV, Rywińska A, Morgunov IG (2010) Citric acid production from glycerol-containing waste of biodiesel industry by Yarrowia lipolytica in batch, repeated batch and cell recycle regimes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 87:971–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rywińska A, Rymowicz W, Żarowska B, Wojatowitcz M (2009) Biosynthesis of citric acid from glycerol by acetate mutants of Yarrowia lipolytica in fed-batch fermentation. Food Technol Biotechnol 41(1):1–6Google Scholar
  109. Sabourin-Provost G, Hallenbeck PC (2009) High yield conversion of a crude glycerol fraction from biodiesel production to hydrogen by photofermentation. Bioresource Technol 100:3513–3517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Saka S, Kusdiana D (2001) Biodiesel fuel from rapeseed oil as prepared in supercritical methanol. Fuel 80:225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sanchez F, Vasudevan PT (2006) Enzyme catalyzed production of biodiesel from olive oil. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 135:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sanli H, Canakci M (2008) Effects of different alcohol and catalyst usage on biodiesel production from different vegetable oils. Energy Fuel 22:2713–2719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Scholten E, Dägele D (2008) Succinic acid production by a newly isolated bacterium. Biotechnol Lett 30:2143–2146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Scholten E, Renz T, Thomas J (2009) Continuous cultivation approach for fermentative succinic acid production from crude glycerol by Basfia succiniciproducens DD1. Biotechnol Lett 31:1947–1951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Shahid EM, Jamal Y (2011) Production of biodiesel: a technical review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 15:4732–4745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sharma YC, Singh B, Upadhyay SN (2008) Advancements in development and characterization of biodiesel: a review. Fuel 87:2355–2373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Singhabhandhu A, Tezuka T (2010) A perspective on incorporation of glycerin purification process in biodiesel plants using waste cooking oil as feedstock. Energy 35:2493–2504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tao JL, Wang XD, Shen YL, Wei DZ (2005) Strategy for the improvement of prodigiosin production by a Serratia marcescens mutant through fed-batch fermentation. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 21:969–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Tashtoush GM, Al-Widyan MI, Al-Jarrah MM (2004) Experimental study on evaluation and optimization of conversion of waste fat into biodiesel. Energy Convers Manag 45:2697–2711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Thompson JC, He BB (2006) Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production from multiple feedstocks. Appl Eng Agric 22:261–265Google Scholar
  121. Thompson L, Cockayne A, Spiller RC (1994) Inhibitory effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the growth of Helicobacter pylori: a possible explanation of the effect of diet on peptic ulceration. Gut 35:1557–1561Google Scholar
  122. Van Gerpen J (2005) Biodiesel processing and production. Fuel Process Technol 86:1097–1107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Vasudevan PT, Briggs M (2008) Biodiesel production—current state if the art and challenges. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 35:421–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Venkataramanan KP, Boatman JJ, Kurniawan Y, Taconi KA, Bothum GD, Scholz C (2012) Impact of impurities in biodiesel-derived crude glycerol on the fermentation by Clostridium pasteurianum ATCC 6013. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 93:1325–1335Google Scholar
  125. Vincente G, Martinez M, Aracil J (2004) Integrated biodiesel production: a comparison of different homogeneous catalysts systems. Bioresource Technol 92(3):297–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Vlysidis A, Binns M, Webb C, Theodoropoulos C (2011) Glycerol utilization for the production of chemicals: conversion to succinic acid, a combined experimental and computational study. Biochem Eng J 58–59:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wen Z, Pyle DJ, Athalye SK (2009) Glycerol waste from biodiesel manufacturing. In: Aggelis G (ed) Microbial conversions of raw glycerol. Nova Science, New York, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  128. Wilkens E, Ringel AK, Hortig D, Willke T, Vorlop KD (2012) High-level production of 1,3-propanediol form crude glycerol by Clostridium butyricum AKR102a. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 93:1057–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Yang G, Tian J, Li J (2007) Fermentation of 1,3-propanediol by a lactate deficient mutant of Klebsiella oxytoca under microaerobic conditions. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 73:1017–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Yazdani SS, Gonzalez R (2007) Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol: a path to economic viability for the biofuels industry. Curr Opin Biotechnol 18:213–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Yin JH, Xiao M, Song JB (2008) Biodiesel from soybean oil in supercritical methanol with co-solvent. Energy Convers Manag 49:908–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Zabeti M, Daud WMAW, Aroua MK (2009) Activity of solid catalysts for biodiesel production: a review. Fuel Proc Technol 90:770–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Zeng AP (1996) Pathway and kinetic analysis of 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol fermentation by Clostridium butyricum. Bioproc Eng 14:169–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Zeng AP, Biebl H (2002) Bulk chemicals from biotechnology: The case of 1,3-propanediol production and the new trends. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 74:239–259Google Scholar
  135. Zeng AP, Sabra W (2011) Microbial production of diols as platform chemicals: Recent progresses. Curr Opin Biotechnol 22:749–757Google Scholar
  136. Zhang Y, Dube MA, McLean DD, Kates M (2003) Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: process design and technological assessment. Bioresource Technol 89:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Biotechnology, Department of Food Science and TechnologyAgricultural University of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations