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Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 94, Issue 4, pp 887–905 | Cite as

Sialic acid metabolism and sialyltransferases: natural functions and applications

  • Yanhong Li
  • Xi ChenEmail author
Mini-Review

Abstract

Sialic acids are a family of negatively charged monosaccharides which are commonly presented as the terminal residues in glycans of the glycoconjugates on eukaryotic cell surface or as components of capsular polysaccharides or lipooligosaccharides of some pathogenic bacteria. Due to their important biological and pathological functions, the biosynthesis, activation, transfer, breaking down, and recycle of sialic acids are attracting increasing attention. The understanding of the sialic acid metabolism in eukaryotes and bacteria leads to the development of metabolic engineering approaches for elucidating the important functions of sialic acid in mammalian systems and for large-scale production of sialosides using engineered bacterial cells. As the key enzymes in biosynthesis of sialylated structures, sialyltransferases have been continuously identified from various sources and characterized. Protein crystal structures of seven sialyltransferases have been reported. Wild-type sialyltransferases and their mutants have been applied with or without other sialoside biosynthetic enzymes for producing complex sialic acid-containing oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates. This mini-review focuses on current understanding and applications of sialic acid metabolism and sialyltransferases.

Keywords

Carbohydrate Metabolism Sialic acid Sialoside Sialyltransferase 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful for the financial supports from NSF grant CHE1012511, NIH grant R01HD065122, the Camille Dreyfus Teacher-Scholarship, and the UC-Davis Chancellor’s Fellowship.

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© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of California-DavisDavisUSA

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