Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 93, Issue 6, pp 2365–2375 | Cite as

Compatibility of garlic (Allium sativum L.) leaf agglutinin and Cry1Ac δ-endotoxin for gene pyramiding

  • Santosh Kumar Upadhyay
  • Seema Singh
  • Krishnappa Chandrashekar
  • Rakesh Tuli
  • Pradhyumna Kumar Singh
Biotechnologically relevant enzymes and proteins


δ-Endotoxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been used as bio-pesticides for the control of lepidopteran insect pests. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) leaf agglutinin (ASAL), being toxic to several sap-sucking pests and some lepidopteran pests, may be a good candidate for pyramiding with δ-endotoxins in transgenic plants for enhancing the range of resistance to insect pests. Since ASAL shares the midgut receptors with Cry1Ac in Helicoverpa armigera, there is possibility of antagonism in their toxicity. Our study demonstrated that ASAL increased the toxicity of Cry1Ac against H. armigera while Cry1Ac did not alter the toxicity of ASAL against cotton aphids. The two toxins interacted and increased binding of each other to brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) proteins and to the two important receptors, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aminopeptidase N (APN). The results indicated that the toxins had different binding sites on the ALP and APN but influenced mutual binding. We conclude that ASAL can be safely employed with Cry1Ac for developing transgenic crops for wider insect resistance.


Alkaline phosphatase Aminopeptidase Allium sativum leaf agglutinin Brush border membrane vesicles Cry1Ac H. armigera 



Authors are grateful to the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Government of India, New Millennium Technology Leadership Initiative (NMITLI) program for the financial support. SKU is thankful to CSIR for Senior Research Fellowship and GB Technical University for PhD registration. RT is thankful to DST for JC Bose Fellowship. Authors are thankful to SMH Abidi for insect culture, Rajesh K Srivastava for mass spectrometric analysis, Moti Lal for protein extraction from garlic, and Aquila Bano for technical support.

Supplementary material

253_2011_3547_MOESM1_ESM.doc (33 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 33 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Santosh Kumar Upadhyay
    • 1
  • Seema Singh
    • 1
  • Krishnappa Chandrashekar
    • 1
  • Rakesh Tuli
    • 2
  • Pradhyumna Kumar Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.National Botanical Research InstituteCouncil of Scientific and Industrial ResearchLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyNational Agri-Food Biotechnology InstituteMohaliIndia

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