Metabolic engineering of flavonoids in plants and microorganisms
- 2.3k Downloads
Over 9,000 flavonoid compounds have been found in various plants, comprising one of the largest families of natural products. Flavonoids are an essential factor in plant interactions with the environment, often serving as the first line of defense against UV irradiation and pathogen attacks. Flavonoids are also major nutritional compounds in foods and beverages, with demonstrated health benefits. Some flavonoids are potent antioxidants, and specific flavonoid compounds are beneficial in many physiological and pharmacological processes. Therefore, engineering of flavonoid biosynthesis in plants or in microorganisms has significant scientific and economical importance. Construction of biosynthetic pathways in heterologous systems offers promising results for large-scale flavonoid production by fermentation or bioconversion. Genomics and metabolomics now offer unprecedented tools for detailed understanding of the engineered transgenic organism and for developing novel technologies to further increase flavonoid production yields. We summarize some of the recent metabolic engineering strategies in plants and microorganisms, with a focus on applications of metabolic flux analysis. We are confident that these engineering approaches will lead to successful industrial flavonoid production in the near future.
KeywordsFlavonoids Resveratrol Metabolic engineering Metabolic flux
This work is support in part by three federal grants to Oliver Yu, one is from US Department of Energy (DE-SC0001295), one from National Science Foundation (MCB-0923779), and one from US Department of Agriculture (2010-65116-20514).
- Deroles S (2009) Anthocyanin biosynthesis in plant cell cultures: A potential source of natural colourants. In: Gould K (ed) Anthocyanins: Biosynthesis, functions, and applications. Springer, New York, pp 107–167Google Scholar
- Lim SS, Jung SH, Ji J, Shin KH, Keum SR (2001) Synthesis of flavonoids and their effects on aldose reductase and sorbitol accumulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat tissues. J Pharm Pharmacol 53:653–668Google Scholar
- Mavel S, Dikic B, Palakas S, Emond P, Greguric I, de Gracia AG, Mattner F, Garrigos M, Guilloteau D, Katsifis A (2006) Synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of flavone derivatives as potential radioligands for imaging the multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (ABCC1/MRP1). Bioorg Med Chem 14:1599–1607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nijveldt RJ, van Nood E, van Hoorn DE, Boelens PG, van Norren K, van Leeuwen PA (2001) Flavonoids: a review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications. Am J Clin Nutr 74:418–425Google Scholar
- Wang Y, Halls C, Zhang J, Matsuno M, Zhang Y, Yu O (2011) Stepwise increase of resveratrol biosynthesis in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by metabolic engineering. Metab Eng. doi: 10.1016/j.ymben.2011.04.005