Advertisement

Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 91, Issue 2, pp 365–375 | Cite as

Impacts of variations in elemental nutrient concentration of Chardonnay musts on Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation kinetics and wine composition

  • Simon A. Schmidt
  • Simon Dillon
  • Radka Kolouchova
  • Paul A. Henschke
  • Paul J. Chambers
Applied Microbial and Cell Physiology

Abstract

Chardonnay, being the predominant white wine-grape cultivar in the Australian wine sector, is subject to widely varying winemaking processes with the aim of producing a variety of wine styles. Therefore, juice composition might not always be ideal for optimal fermentation outcomes. Our aim was to better understand the composition of Chardonnay juice and how compositional parameters impact on fermentation outcomes. This was achieved through a survey of 96 commercially prepared Chardonnay juices during the 2009 vintage. Common juice variables were estimated using near infrared spectroscopy, and elemental composition was determined using radial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The influence of elemental composition on fermentation outcomes was assessed by fermentation of a defined medium formulated to reflect the composition and range of concentrations as determined by the juice survey. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strain effects were also assessed. Key parameters influencing fermentation outcomes were verified by laboratory scale fermentation of Chardonnay juice. This exploration of Chardonnay juice identified interactions between juice pH and potassium concentration as key factors impacting on fermentation performance and wine quality. Outcomes differed depending on yeast strain.

Keywords

Fermentation performance Elemental composition Saccharomyces cerevisiae Chardonnay Acetic acid Stuck fermentation Potassium 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This project was supported by Australia’s grape growers and winemakers through their investment body, the Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation, with matching funds from the Australian Government. We would also like to thank the Yalumba Wine Company for their support in this work. The AWRI is part of the Wine Innovation Cluster, Adelaide, South Australia.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

253_2011_3197_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (51 kb)
Online resource 1 Correlations between Chardonnay juice elemental components. Pearson product–moment correlation coefficient (r) was computed to assess relationships between juice components. Scatter plots (af) summarize significant correlations (p < 0.0001) between juice components. Lines show a linear regression of the data with slopes (s) and x intercepts (int) given. Dotted lines indicate the 95% confidence interval of the regression (PDF 50 kb).

References

  1. Akin H, Brandam C, Meyer XM, Strehaiano P (2008) A model for pH determination during alcoholic fermentation of a grape must by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Chem Eng Process 47:1986–1993Google Scholar
  2. Alexandre H, Charpentier C (1998) Biochemical aspects of stuck and sluggish fermentation in grape must. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 20:20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amerine MA, Joslyn MA (1970) Table wines. University of California Press, Berkeley, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson MM, Smith RJ, Williams MA, Wolpert JA (2008) Viticultural evaluation of French and California Chardonnay clones grown for production of sparkling wine. Am J Enol Vitic 59:73–77Google Scholar
  5. Anraku Y, Ohya Y, Iida H (1991) Cell-cycle control by calcium and calmodulin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochim Biophys Acta 1093:169–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2009) Australian wine and grape industry, cat. no. 1329.0. Australian Bureau of Statistics, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  7. Bataillon M, Rico A, Sablayrolles JM, Salmon JM, Barre P (1996) Early thiamin assimilation by yeasts under enological conditions: impact on alcoholic fermentation kinetics. J Ferment Bioeng 82:145–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bell SJ, Henschke PA (2005) Implications of nitrogen nutrition for grapes, fermentation and wine. Aust J Grape Wine Res 11:242–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bettiga LJ (2003) Comparison of seven Chardonnay clonal selections in the Salinas Valley. Am J Enol Vitic 54:203–206Google Scholar
  10. Bisson LF, Butzke CE (2000) Diagnosis and rectification of stuck and sluggish fermentations. Am J Enol Vitic 51:168–177Google Scholar
  11. Blackwell KJ, Tobin JM, Avery SV (1997) Manganese uptake and toxicity in magnesium-supplemented and unsupplemented Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 47:180–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bohlscheid JC, Fellman JK, Wang XD, Ansen D, Edwards CG (2007) The influence of nitrogen and biotin interactions on the performance of Saccharomyces in alcoholic fermentations. J Appl Microbiol 102:390–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boulton R (1980) The general relationship between potassium, sodium and pH in grape juice and wine. Am J Enol Vitic 31:182–186Google Scholar
  14. Butzke CE (1998) Survey of yeast assimilable nitrogen status in musts from California, Oregon, and Washington. Am J Enol Vitic 49:220–224Google Scholar
  15. Camacho M, Ramos J, Rodriguez-Navarro A (1981) Potassium requirements of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Microbiol 6:295–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cantarelli C (1957) On the activation of alcoholic fermentation in winemaking. Am J Enol Vitic 8:113–120Google Scholar
  17. Castiñeira-Gómez MdM, Brandt R, Jakubowski N, Andersson JT (2004) Changes of the metal composition in German white wines through the winemaking process. A study of 63 elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 52:2953–2961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coetzee PP, Steffens FE, Eiselen RJ, Augustyn OP, Balcaen L, Vanhaecke F (2005) Multi-element analysis of South African wines by ICP-MS and their classification according to geographical origin. J Agric Food Chem 53:5060–5066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Delfini C, Cervetti F (1991) Metabolic and technological factors affecting acetic acid production by yeasts during alcoholic fermentation. Vitic Enol Sci 46:142–150Google Scholar
  20. Delfini C, Costa A (1993) Effects of the grape must lees and insoluble materials on the alcoholic fermentation rate and the production of acetic acid, pyruvic acid, and acetaldehyde. Am J Enol Vitic 44:86–92Google Scholar
  21. Delfini C, Cocito C, Ravaglia S, Conterno L (1993) Influence of clarification and suspended grape solid materials on sterol content of free run and pressed grape musts in the presence of growing yeast cells. Am J Enol Vitic 44:452–458Google Scholar
  22. Dombek KM, Ingram LO (1986) Magnesium limitation and its role in apparent toxicity of ethanol during yeast fermentation. Appl Environ Microbiol 52:975–981Google Scholar
  23. Frayne RF (1986) Direct analysis of the major organic components in grape must and wine using high-performance liquid-chromatography. Am J Enol Vitic 37:281–287Google Scholar
  24. Garcia-Moruno E, Delfini C, Pessione E, Giunta C (1993) Factors affecting acetic acid production by yeasts in strongly clarified grape musts. Microbios 74:249–256Google Scholar
  25. Hagen KM, Keller M, Edwards CG (2008) Survey of biotin, pantothenic acid, and assimilable nitrogen in winegrapes from the pacific northwest. Am J Enol Vitic 59:432–436Google Scholar
  26. Henschke P (1997) Stuck fermentations: causes, prevention and cure. Advances in juice clarification and yeast inoculation, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Proc Aust Soc Viticulture Oenology 41:30–38Google Scholar
  27. Henschke PA, Jiranek V (1993) Yeasts metabolism of nitrogen compounds. In: Fleet GH (ed) Wine microbiology and biotechnology. Harwood Academic Publishers, Switzerland, pp 77–166Google Scholar
  28. Jones RP, Gadd GM (1990) Ionic nutrition of yeast—physiological mechanisms involved and implications for biotechnology. Enzyme Microb Technol 12:402–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jones RP, Pamment N, Greenfield PF (1981) Alcohol fermentation by yeasts—the effect of environmental and other variables. Process Biochem 16:42–49Google Scholar
  30. Kudo M, Vagnoli P, Bisson LF (1998) Imbalance of pH and potassium concentration as a cause of stuck fermentations. Am J Enol Vitic 49:295–301Google Scholar
  31. Lambert RJ, Stratford M (1999) Weak-acid preservatives: modelling microbial inhibition and response. J Appl Microbiol 86:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Larue F, Lafonlafourcade S, Ribereaugayon P (1980) Relationship between the sterol content of yeast cells and their fermentation activity in grape must. Appl Environ Microbiol 39:808–811Google Scholar
  33. Lauff DB, Santa-Maria GE (2010) Potassium deprivation is sufficient to induce a cell death program in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res 10:497–507Google Scholar
  34. Leske PA, Sas AN, Coutler AD, Stockley CS, Lee TH (1997) The composition of Australian grape juice: chloride, sodium and sulphate ions. Aust J Grape Wine Res 3:26–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Liccioli T, Tran TMT, Cozzolino D, Jiranek V, Chambers PJ, Schmidt SA (2011) Microvinification—How small can we go? Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 85:1621–1628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ludovico P, Sousa MJ, Silva MT, Leão C, Côrte-Real M (2001) Saccharomyces cerevisiae commits to a programmed cell death process in response to acetic acid. Microbiology 147:2409–2415Google Scholar
  37. McHargue JS, Calfee RK (1931) Effect of manganese, copper and zinc on the growth of yeast. Plant Physiol 6:559–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mpelasoka BS, Schachtman DR, Treeby MT, Thomas MR (2003) A review of potassium nutrition in grapevines with special emphasis on berry accumulation. Aust J Grape Wine Res 9:154–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ough CS, Davenport M, Joseph K (1989) Effects of certain vitamins on growth and fermentation rate of several commercial active dry wine yeasts. Am J Enol Vitic 40:208–213Google Scholar
  40. Pampulha ME, Loureirodias MC (1989) Combined effect of acetic acid, pH and ethanol on intracellular pH of fermenting yeast. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 31:547–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pereira GE, Gaudillere JP, Pieri P, Hilbert G, Maucourt M, Deborde C, Moing A, Rolin D (2006) Microclimate influence on mineral and metabolic profiles of grape berries. J Agric Food Chem 54:6765–6775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ribéreau-Gayon P, Dubourdieu D, Donéche B, Lonvaud A (2000) The microbiology of wine and vinifications. Wiley, West Sussex, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  43. Rühl EH, Clingeleffer PR, Nicholas PR, Cirami RM, McCarthy MG, Whiting JR (1988) Effect of rootstocks on berry weight and pH, mineral content and organic acid concentration of grape juice of some wine varieties. Aust J Exp Agric 28:119–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rühl EH, Fuda AP, Treeby MT (1992) Effect of potassium, magnesium and nitrogen supply on grape juice composition of Riesling, Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vines. Aust J Exp Agric 32:645–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sokolov S, Knorre D, Smirnova E, Markova O, Pozniakovsky A, Skulachev V, Severin F (2006) Ysp2 mediates death of yeast induced by amiodarone or intracellular acidification. Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg 1757:1366–1370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Somers TC (1977) A connection between potassium levels in the harvest and relative quality in Australian red grapes. Aust Wine Brew Spirit Rev 96:32–34Google Scholar
  47. Spayd SE, Andersen-Bagge J (1996) Free amino acid composition of grape juice from 12 Vitis vinifera cultivars in Washington. Am J Enol Vitic 47:389–402Google Scholar
  48. Torija MJ, Beltran G, Novo M, Poblet M, Rozes N, Mas A, Guillamon JM (2003) Effect of organic acids and nitrogen source on alcoholic fermentation: study of their buffering capacity. J Agric Food Chem 51:916–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. van Dijken JP, Scheffers WA (1986) Redox balances in the metabolism of sugars by yeasts. FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:199–224Google Scholar
  50. Vermeir S, Nicolai BM, Jans K, Maes G, Lammertyn J (2007) High-throughput microplate enzymatic assays for fast sugar and acid quantification in apple and tomato. J Agric Food Chem 55:3240–3248Google Scholar
  51. Vilanova M, Ugliano M, Varela C, Siebert T, Pretorius IS, Henschke PA (2007) Assimilable nitrogen utilisation and production of volatile and non-volatile compounds in chemically defined medium by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 77:145–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Walker GM, Birch RM, Chandrasena G, Maynard AI (1996) Magnesium, calcium, and fermentative metabolism in industrial yeasts. J Am Soc Brew Chem 54:13–18Google Scholar
  53. Walker RR, Blackmore DH, Clingeleffer PR (2010) Impact of rootstock on yield and ion concentrations in petioles, juice and wine of Shiraz and Chardonnay in different viticultural environments with different irrigation water salinity. Aust J Grape Wine Res 16:243–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wang XD, Bohlscheid JC, Edwards CG (2003) Fermentative activity and production of volatile compounds by Saccharomyces grown in synthetic grape juice media deficient in assimilable nitrogen and/or pantothenic acid. J Appl Microbiol 94:349–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wümpelmann M, Kjaergaard L, Joergensen BB (1984) Ethanol production with Saccharomyces cerevisiae under aerobic conditions at different potassium concentrations. Biotechnol Bioeng 26:301–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zarcinas BA, Cartwright B, Spouncer LR (1987) Nitric-acid digestion and multielement analysis of plant material by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 18:131–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon A. Schmidt
    • 1
  • Simon Dillon
    • 2
  • Radka Kolouchova
    • 1
  • Paul A. Henschke
    • 1
  • Paul J. Chambers
    • 1
  1. 1.The Australian Wine Research InstituteAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.The Yalumba Wine CompanyAngastonAustralia

Personalised recommendations