Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 87, Issue 2, pp 595–607 | Cite as

Characterization of the versatile monooxygenase CYP109B1 from Bacillus subtilis

  • Marco Girhard
  • Tobias Klaus
  • Yogan Khatri
  • Rita Bernhardt
  • Vlada B. UrlacherEmail author
Biotechnologically Relevant Enzymes and Proteins


The oxidizing activity of CYP109B1 from Bacillus subtilis was reconstituted in vitro with various artificial redox proteins including putidaredoxin reductase and putidaredoxin from Pseudomonas putida, truncated bovine adrenodoxin reductase and adrenodoxin, flavodoxin reductase and flavodoxin from Escherichia coli, and two flavodoxins from B. subtilis (YkuN and YkuP). Binding and oxidation of a broad range of chemically different substrates (fatty acids, n-alkanes, primary n-alcohols, terpenoids like (+)-valencene, α- and β-ionone, and the steroid testosterone) were investigated. CYP109B1was found to oxidize saturated fatty acids (conversion up to 99%) and their methyl and ethyl esters (conversion up to 80%) at subterminal positions with a preference for the carbon atoms C11 and C12 counted from the carboxyl group. For the hydroxylation of primary n-alcohols, the ω−2 position was preferred. n-Alkanes were not accepted as substrates by CYP109B1. Regioselective hydroxylation of terpenoids α-ionone (∼70% conversion) and β-ionone (∼ 91% conversion) yielded the allylic alcohols 3-hydroxy-α-ionone and 4-hydroxy-β-ionone, respectively. Furthermore, indole was demonstrated to inhibit fatty acid oxidation.


Bacillus subtilis P450 monooxygenase Fatty acid Terpene Ionone Activity reconstitution 



We wish to thank Kyoko Momoi, Sumire Honda Malca, and Svetlana Tihovsky (Universitaet Stuttgart) for their help in preparation of Fdx and cloning of FdR, YkuN, and YkuP. We are also thankful to Wolfgang Reinle for expression and purification of Adx and AdR. MG, TK, and VBU acknowledge the support of this work by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB706) and Ministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kunst Baden-Württemberg.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

253_2010_2472_MOESM1_ESM.doc (224 kb)
ESM 1 Electronic supplementary material (DOC 223 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Girhard
    • 1
  • Tobias Klaus
    • 1
  • Yogan Khatri
    • 2
  • Rita Bernhardt
    • 2
  • Vlada B. Urlacher
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Technical BiochemistryUniversitaet StuttgartStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.Institute of BiochemistrySaarland UniversitySaarbrückenGermany

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