Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 86, Issue 5, pp 1585–1592 | Cite as

Mineralization of s-triazine herbicides by a newly isolated Nocardioides species strain DN36

  • Koji Satsuma
Environmental Biotechnology


A novel s-triazine-mineralizing bacterium—Nocardioides sp. strain DN36—was isolated from paddy field soil treated with ring-U-14C-labeled simetryn ([14C]simetryn) in a model paddy ecosystem (microcosm). In a tenfold-diluted R2A medium, strain DN36 liberated 14CO2 from not only [14C]simetryn but also three ring-U-14C-labeled s-triazines: atrazine, simazine, and propazine. We found that DN36 mineralized ring-U-14C–cyanuric acid added as an initial substrate, indicating that the bacterium mineralized s-triazine herbicides via a common metabolite, namely, cyanuric acid. Strain DN36 harbored a set of genes encoding previously reported s-triazine-degrading enzymes (TrzN-AtzB-AtzC), and it also transformed ametryn, prometryn, dimethametryn, atraton, simeton, and prometon. The findings suggest that strain DN36 can mineralize a diverse range of s-triazine herbicides. To our knowledge, strain DN36 is the first Nocardioides strain that can individually mineralize s-triazine herbicides via the ring cleavage of cyanuric acid. Further, DN36 could not grow on cyanuric acid, and the degradation seemed to occur cometabolically.


s-Triazine herbicides Atrazine Cyanuric acid s-Triazine ring mineralization Gram-positive strains Nocardioides 



I am grateful to Nippon Kayaku Co. Ltd. for providing radiolabeled simetryn. I am also grateful to Dr Kazuhiro Takagi for providing the DNA extract of the simazine-degrading β-proteobacterium. I wish to thank Minoru Masuda and Aiko Kamogawa for their excellent technical assistance and Dr. Kiyoshi Sato and Dr. Yasuhiro Kato for their kind advice.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemistry DivisionThe Institute of Environmental ToxicologyIbarakiJapan

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