New applications and performance of bioelectrochemical systems
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Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are emerging technologies which use microorganisms to catalyze the reactions at the anode and/or cathode. BES research is advancing rapidly, and a whole range of applications using different electron donors and acceptors has already been developed. In this mini review, we focus on technological aspects of the expanding application of BESs. We will analyze the anode and cathode half-reactions in terms of their standard and actual potential and report the overpotentials of these half-reactions by comparing the reported potentials with their theoretical potentials. When combining anodes with cathodes in a BES, new bottlenecks and opportunities arise. For application of BESs, it is crucial to lower the internal energy losses and increase productivity at the same time. Membranes are a crucial element to obtain high efficiencies and pure products but increase the internal resistance of BESs. The comparison between production of fuels and chemicals in BESs and in present production processes should gain more attention in future BES research. By making this comparison, it will become clear if the scope of BESs can and should be further developed into the field of biorefineries.
KeywordsBioelectrochemical system Microbial fuel cell Microbial electrolysis cell Overpotential Coulombic efficiency
This work was performed in the TTIW-cooperation framework of Wetsus, Centre of Excellence for sustainable water technology (www.wetsus.nl). Wetsus is funded by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, the European Union European Regional Development Fund, the Province of Fryslân, the city of Leeuwarden, and the EZ-KOMPAS Program of the “Samenwerkingsverband Noord-Nederland.” The authors like to thank the participants of the research theme “Bio-energy” for the fruitful discussions and their financial support.
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