Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 85, Issue 4, pp 1201–1209 | Cite as

A simple method to introduce marker-free genetic modifications into the chromosome of naturally nontransformable Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains

  • Natalia P. ZakataevaEmail author
  • Oksana V. Nikitina
  • Sergey V. Gronskiy
  • Dmitriy V. Romanenkov
  • Vitaliy A. Livshits


A simple method to introduce marker-free deletions, insertions, and point mutations into the chromosomes of naturally nontransformable Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains has been developed. The method is efficient and fast, and it allows for the generation of genetic modifications without the use of a counter-selectable marker or a special prerequisite strain. This method uses the combination of the following: the effective introduction of a delivery plasmid into cells for gene replacement; a two-step replacement recombination procedure, which occurs at a very high frequency due to the use of a thermosensitive rolling-circle replication plasmid; and colony polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for screening. Using PCR primers with mismatches at the 3′ end enables the selection of strains that contain a single nucleotide substitution in the target gene. This approach can be used as a routine method for the investigation of complex physiological pathways and for the metabolic engineering of food-grade industrial B. amyloliquefaciens and other Bacillus strains.


Naturally nontransformable Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Thermosensitive rolling-circle plasmid Replacement recombination Marker-free genetic modifications Point mutation Colony PCR analysis 



We are very grateful to J. Jomantas for the gift of the E40 bacteriophage and for his help with its use. We would also like to thank A. S. Mironov for providing the pKS1 plasmid and K. Matsuno for a critical reading of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natalia P. Zakataeva
    • 1
    Email author
  • Oksana V. Nikitina
    • 1
  • Sergey V. Gronskiy
    • 1
  • Dmitriy V. Romanenkov
    • 1
  • Vitaliy A. Livshits
    • 1
  1. 1.Ajinomoto–Genetika Research InstituteMoscowRussia

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