Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Hyper production of cellulase-free xylanase by Thermomyces lanuginosus SSBP on bagasse pulp and its application in biobleaching

  • 281 Accesses

  • 31 Citations


A cellulase-free xylanase production by Thermomyces lanuginosus SSBP using bagasse pulp was examined under submerged (SmC) and solid-state cultivation (SSC). Higher level of xylanase activity (19,320 ± 37 U g−1 dried carbon source) was obtained in SSC cultures than in SmC (1,772 ± 15 U g−1 dried carbon source) after 120 h with 10% inoculum. The biobleaching efficacy of crude xylanase was tested on bagasse pulp, and the maximum brightness of 46.1 ± 0.06% was observed with 50 U of crude xylanase per gram of pulp, which was 3.8 points higher than the brightness of untreated samples. Reducing sugars (26 ± 0.1 mg g−1) and UV-absorbing lignin-derived compounds in the pulp filtrates were observed as maximum in 50 U of crude xylanase-treated samples. T. lanuginosus SSBP has potential applications due to its high productivity of xylanase and its efficiency in pulp bleaching.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. Ayyachamy M, Vatsala TM (2007) Production and partial characterization of cellulase free xylanase by Bacillus subtilis C 01 using agriresidues and its application in biobleaching of non-woody plant pulp. Lett Appl Microbiol 45:467–472

  2. Bailey M, Biely P, Poutanen K (1992) Interlaboratory testing of methods for assay of xylanase activity. J Biotechnol 23:257–270

  3. Bajpai P (2004) Biological bleaching of chemical pulps. Crit Rev Biotechnol 24:1–58

  4. Beg QK, Kapoor M, Mahajan L, Hoondal GS (2001) Microbial xylanases and their industrial applications—a review. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 56:326–338

  5. Bim MA, Franco TT (2000) Extraction in aqueous two-phase systems of alkaline xylanase produced by Bacillus pumilus and its application in kraft pulp bleaching. J Chromatogr B 743:349–356

  6. Christopher L, Bissoon S, Singh S, Szendefy J, Szakacs G (2005) Bleach-enhancing abilities of Thermomyces lanuginosus xylanases produced by solid state fermentation. Proc Biochem 40:3230–3235

  7. Clarke JH, Rixon JE, Ciruela A, Gilbert HJ, Hazlewood GP (1997) Family-10 and family-11 xylanases differ in their capacity to enhance the bleachability of hardwood and soft wood paper pulps. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 48:177–183

  8. Collins T, Gerday C, Feller G (2005) Xylanases, xylanase families and extremophilic xylanases. FEMS Microbiol Rev 29:3–23

  9. Duarte MC, Silva ECD, Gomes IMDB, Ponezi AN, Portugal EP, Vincente JR, Davanzo E (2003) Xylan-hydrolyzing enzyme system from Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 and its effects on Eucalyptus grandis pulp for pulp bleaching improvement. Bioresour Technol 88:9–15

  10. Gessesse A, Mamo G (1999) High-level xylanase production by an alkalophilic Bacillus sp. by using solid-state fermentation. Enzyme Microbial Technol 25:68–72

  11. Ghose TK (1987) Measurement of cellulase activities. Pure Appl Chem 59(2):257–268

  12. Gonçalves RA, Moriya RY, Oliveira LRM, Saad MBW (2008) Xylanase recycling for the economical biobleaching of sugarcane bagasse and straw pulps. Enzyme Microb Technol 43(2):157–163 doi:

  13. Gübitz GM, Haltrich D, Latal B, Steiner W (1997) Mode of depolymerization of hemicellulose by various mannanases and xylanases in relation to their ability to bleach softwood pulp. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 47:319–326

  14. Held B, Thwaites J, Farrel R, Blanchette R (2003) Albino strains of Ophiostoma species for biological control of sap-staining fungi. Holzforschung 57:237–242

  15. Jiang ZQ, Li XT, Yang SQ, Li LT, Li Y, Feng WY (2006) Biobleach boosting effect of recombinant xylanase B from the hyperthermophilic Thermotoga maritima on wheat straw pulp. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 70:65–71

  16. Kenealy WR, Jeffries TW (2003) Enzyme process for pulp and paper: a review of recent developments. In Wood deterioration and preservation: advances in our challenging world. American Chemical Society, Washington DC, pp 210–239

  17. Kulkarni N, Rao M (1996) Application of xylanase from alkaliphilic thermophilic Bacillus sp. NCIM 59 in biobleaching of bagasse pulp. J Biotechnol 51:167–173

  18. Li XT, Jiang ZQ, Li LT, Yang SQ, Feng WY, Fan JY, Kusakabe I (2005) Characterization of a cellulase-free, neutral xylanase from Thermomyces lanuginosus CBS 288.54 and its biobleaching effect on wheat straw pulp. Biores Technol 96:1370–1379

  19. Oakley AJ, Heinrich T, Thompson CA, Wilce MC (2003) Characterization of family 11 xylanase from Bacillus subtilis B230 used for bleaching. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 59:627–636

  20. Rials TG, Wolcott MC (1997) Physical and mechanical properties of agro based fibres. In: Rowell RM, Young RA Rowell JK (eds) Paper and composites from agro-based resources. Lewis, Boca Raton, pp 63–82

  21. Roncero MB, Torres AL, Colom JF, Vidal T (2003) TCF bleaching of wheat straw pulp using ozone and xylanase. Part A: paper quality assessment. Bioresour Technol 87:305–314

  22. Santos ED, Piovan T, Roberto IC, Milagres FAM (2003) Kinetics of the solid state fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by Thermoascus aurantiacus for the production of xylanase. Biotechnol Lett 25:13–16

  23. Singh S, Madlala AM, Prior BA (2003) Thermomyces lanuginosus: Properties of strains and their hemicellulases. FEMS Microbiol Rev 27:3–16

  24. Szendefy J, Szakacs G, Christopher L (2006) Potential of solid-state fermentation enzymes of Aspergillus oryzae in biobleaching of paper pulp. Enzyme Microbial Technol 39:1354–1360

  25. TAPPI Test Methods (1996) Technical association of the pulp and paper industry, TAPPI, Atlanta

  26. Tremblay L, Archibald F (1993) Production of a cloned xylanase in Bacillus cereus and its performance in kraft pulp prebleaching. Can J Microbiol 39:853–860

  27. Viikari L, Kantelinen A, Sundquist J, Linko M (1994) Xylanases in bleaching: from an idea to the industry. FEMS Microbiol Rev 13:335–350

Download references


This study was supported by grants from the National Research Foundation, Republic of South Africa. The authors are thankful to Prof. Peter Biely, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia, and Prof. Bernard Prior, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, for their valuable suggestions, inputs, and critical evaluation of the manuscript. The authors are thankful to Mr. Ray Burger and Mr. Teddy (Sappi Fine Paper, Stanger, South Africa) for their technical assistance.

Author information

Correspondence to A. Manimaran.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Manimaran, A., Kumar, K.S., Permaul, K. et al. Hyper production of cellulase-free xylanase by Thermomyces lanuginosus SSBP on bagasse pulp and its application in biobleaching. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 81, 887–893 (2009).

Download citation


  • Thermomyces lanuginosus
  • Solid-state cultivation
  • Submerged cultivation
  • Bagasse pulp
  • Biobleaching
  • Brightness
  • Kappa number
  • Dried carbon source