Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 79, Issue 1, pp 147–155 | Cite as

Fertilizer-dependent efficiency of Pseudomonads for improving growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

  • Baby Shaharoona
  • Muhammad Naveed
  • Muhammad ArshadEmail author
  • Zahir A. Zahir
Environmental Biotechnology


Acquisition of nutrients by plants is primarily dependent on root growth and bioavailability of nutrients in the rooting medium. Most of the beneficial bacteria enhance root growth, but their effectiveness could be influenced by the nutrient status around the roots. In this study, two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase containing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. fluorescens biotype F were tested for their effect on growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat under simultaneously varying levels of all the three major nutrients N, P, and K (at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of recommended doses). Results of pot and field trials revealed that the efficacy of these strains for improving growth and yield of wheat reduced with the increasing rates of NPK added to the soil. In most of the cases, significant negative linear correlations were recorded between percentage increases in growth and yield parameters of wheat caused by inoculation and increasing levels of applied NPK fertilizers. It is highly likely that under low fertilizer application, the ACC-deaminase activity of PGPR might have caused reduction in the synthesis of stress (nutrient)-induced inhibitory levels of ethylene in the roots through ACC hydrolysis into NH3 and α-ketobutyrate. The results of this study imply that these Pseudomonads could be employed in combination with appropriate doses of fertilizers for better plant growth and savings of fertilizers.


Pseudomonads ACC-deaminase Ethylene NPK fertilizers Wheat 


  1. Abeles FB, Morgan PW, Saltveit ME Jr (1992) Ethylene in plant biology. Academic, San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  2. Arshad M, Frankenberger WT Jr (1998) Plant-growth regulating substances in the rhizosphere: Microbial production and functions. Adv Agron 62:45–151Google Scholar
  3. Arshad M, Frankenberger WT Jr (2002) Ethylene: agricultural sources and applications. Kluwer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Ayers RS, Westcot DW (1985) Water quality for agriculture. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Papers 29 (Rev. 1) FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  5. Barber SA, Cushman JH (1981) Nitrogen uptake model for agronomic crops. In: Iskander IK (ed) Modeling wastewater renovation-land treatment. Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp 382–409Google Scholar
  6. Barber SA, Silverbush M (1984) Plant root morphology and nutrient uptake. In: Barber SA, Bouldin DR, Kral DM, Hawkins SL (eds) Roots, nutrient and water influx and plant growth. ASA special publication number 49. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, pp 65–88Google Scholar
  7. Barker A, Corey K (1990) Ethylene evolution by tomato plants receiving nitrogen nutrition from urea. Hortic Sci 119:706–710Google Scholar
  8. Burd GI, Dixon DG, Glick BR (1998) A plant growth promoting bacteria that decreases nickel toxicity in seedlings. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:3663–3668Google Scholar
  9. Corey K, Barker A (1989) Ethylene evolution and polyamine accumulation by tomato subjected to interactive stresses of ammonium toxicity and potassium deficiency. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 114:651–655Google Scholar
  10. De Freitas JR, Germida JJ (1990) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for winter wheat. Can J Microbiol 36:265–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dworkin M, Foster J (1958) Experiments with some microorganisms which utilize ethane and hydrogen. J Bacteriol 75:592–601Google Scholar
  12. German MA, Burdman S, Okon Y, Kigel J (2000) Effects of Azospirillum brasilense on root morphology of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under different water regimes. Biol Fertil Soils 32:259–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Glick BR (2004) Changes in plant growth and development by rhizosphere bacteria that modify plant ethylene levels. Acta Horticult 631:265–273Google Scholar
  14. Glick BR, Karaturovic DM, Newell PC (1995) A novel procedure for rapid isolation of plant growth promoting pseudomonads. Can J Microbiol 41:533–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Glick BR, Penrose DM, Li J (1998) A model for the lowering of plant ethylene concentrations by plant growth-promoting bacteria. J Theor Biol 190:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grichko VP, Glick BR (2001) Amelioration of flooding stress by ACC deaminase-containing plant growth-promoting bacteria. Can J Microbiol 47:77–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Holguin G, Glick BR (2001) Expression of the ACC deaminase gene from Enterobacter cloacae UW4 in Azospirillum brasilense. Microb Ecol 41:281–288Google Scholar
  18. Johnson PR, Ecker JR (1998) The ethylene gas signal transduction pathway: a molecular perspective. Annu Rev Genet 32:227–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Karlidag H, Esitken A, Turan M, Sahin F (2007) Effects of root inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield, growth and nutrient element contents of leaves of apple. Sci Hortic 114:16–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kende H (1993) Ethylene biosynthesis. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 44:283–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Khalid A, Arshad M, Zahir ZA (2004) Screening plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for improving growth and yield of wheat. J Appl Microbiol 96:473–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lucy M, Reed E, Glick BR (2004) Application of free living plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 86:1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lynch J, Brown KM (1997) Ethylene and plant responses to nutritional stress. Physiol Plant 100:613–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Marshner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Mattoo AK, Suttle CS (1991) The plant hormone ethylene. CRC, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  26. Mayak S, Tirosh T, Glick BR (2004a) Plant growth-promoting bacteria confer resistance in tomato plants to salt stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 42:565–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mayak S, Tirosh T, Glick BR (2004b) Plant growth-promoting bacteria that confer resistance to water stress in tomato and pepper. Plant Sci 166:525–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Morgan PG, Drew MC (1997) Ethylene and plant responses to stress. Physiol Plant 100:620–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Penrose D, Glick BR (2001) Levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) in exudates and extracts of canola seeds treated with plant growth-promoting bacteria. Can J Microbiol 47:368–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Reid MS (1995) Ethylene in plant growth, development and senescence. In: Davies PJ (ed) Plant hormone, physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology. Kluwer, Dordrecht Netherlands, pp 486–508Google Scholar
  31. Rengel Z, Kordan H (1988) Effect of N, P and K deficiencies on light-dependent anthocyanin formation in Zea mays L. seedlings. J Plant Physiol 132:126–128Google Scholar
  32. Ryan J, Estefan G, Rashid A (2001) Soil and plant analysis: laboratory manual. ICARDA, AleppoGoogle Scholar
  33. Saleem M, Arshad M, Hussain S, Bhatti AS (2007) Perspectives of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing ACC deaminase in stress agriculture. J Ind Microbiol Biotech 34:635–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Salisbury FB (1994) The role of plant hormones. In: Wilkinson RE (ed) Plant–environment interactions. Marcel Dekker, New York, USA, pp 39–81Google Scholar
  35. Shaharoona B, Arshad M, Zahir ZA (2006a) Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase on maize (Zea mays L.) growth under axenic conditions and on nodulation in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.). Lett Appl Microbiol 42:155–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shaharoona B, Arshad M, Zahir ZA, Khalid A (2006b) Performance of Pseudomonas spp. containing ACC-deaminase for improving growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in the presence of nitrogenous fertilizer. Soil Biol Biochem 38:2971–2975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shaharoona B, Bibi R, Arshad M, Zahir ZA, Hassan Z (2006c) 1-Aminocylopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase rhizobacteria extenuates ACC-induced classical triple response in etiolated pea seedlings. Pak J Bot 38:1491–1499Google Scholar
  38. Shaharoona B, Jamro GM, Zahir ZA, Arshad M, Memon KS (2007a) Effectiveness of various Pseudomonas spp. and Burkholderia caryophylli containing ACC-deaminase for improving growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum l.). J Microbiol Biotechnol 17:1300–1307Google Scholar
  39. Shaharoona B, Arshad M, Khalid A (2007b) Differential response of etiolated pea seedling to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate and/or l-methionine utilizing rhizobacteria. J Micrbiol 45:15–20Google Scholar
  40. Vessay JK (2003) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers. Plant soil 255:571–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zahir ZA, Arshad M, Frankenberger WT Jr (2004) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria application and perspectives in agriculture. Adv Agron 81:97–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Baby Shaharoona
    • 1
  • Muhammad Naveed
    • 1
  • Muhammad Arshad
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zahir A. Zahir
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Soil and Environmental SciencesUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations