Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 78, Issue 6, pp 927–938

Glucose oxidase: natural occurrence, function, properties and industrial applications

Mini-Review

Abstract

Glucose oxidase (GOX) from Aspergillus niger is a well-characterised glycoprotein consisting of two identical 80-kDa subunits with two FAD co-enzymes bound. Both the DNA sequence and protein structure at 1.9 Ǻ have been determined and reported previously. GOX catalyses the oxidation of d-glucose (C6H12O6) to d-gluconolactone (C6H10O6) and hydrogen peroxide. GOX is produced naturally in some fungi and insects where its catalytic product, hydrogen peroxide, acts as an anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agent. GOX is Generally Regarded As Safe, and GOX from A. niger is the basis of many industrial applications. GOX-catalysed reaction removes oxygen and generates hydrogen peroxide, a trait utilised in food preservation. GOX has also been used in baking, dry egg powder production, wine production, gluconic acid production, etc. Its electrochemical activity makes it an important component in glucose sensors and potentially in fuel cell applications. This paper will give a brief background on the natural occurrence, functions as well as the properties of glucose oxidase. A good coverage on the diverse uses of glucose oxidase in the industry is presented with a brief outline on the working principles in the various settings. Furthermore, food grade GOX preparations are relatively affordable and widely available; the readers may be encouraged to explore other potential uses of GOX. One example is that GOX-catalysed reaction generates significant amount of heat (∼200 kJ/mol), and this property has been mostly neglected in the various applications described so far.

Keywords

Glucose oxidase Industrial applications Aspergillus niger Food processing Additive Enzyme Properties Occurrence Functions 

References

  1. AbuSara NF (2006) Honey as antimicrobial agent. Waikato Honey Research Unit, The University of Waikato, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  2. Arora MB, Hestekin JA, Snyder SW, St. Martin EJ, Lin YJ, Donnelly MI, Millard CS (2007) The separative bioreactor: a continuous separation process for the simultaneous production and direct capture of organic acids. Sep Sci Technol 42:2519–2538Google Scholar
  3. BACAS (2004) Industrial biotechnology and sustainable chemistry. Royal Belgian Academy Council of Applied Science, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  4. Bao J, Furumoto K, Fukunaga K, Nakao K (2001) A kinetic study on air oxidation of glucose catalyzed by immobilized glucose oxidase for production of calcium gluconate. Biochem Eng J 8:91–102Google Scholar
  5. Bao J, Furumoto K, Yoshimoto M, Fukunaga K, Nakao K (2003) Competitive inhibition by hydrogen peroxide produced in glucose oxidation catalyzed by glucose oxidase. Biochem Eng J 13:69–72Google Scholar
  6. Bataillard P, Steffgen E, Haemmerli S, Manz A, Widmer HM (1993) An integrated silicon thermopile as biosensor for the thermal monitoring of glucose, urea and penicillin. Biosens Bioelectron 8:89–98Google Scholar
  7. Bergmeyer HU, Jaworek D (1976) Process for the conversion of glucose into gluconic acid. US Patent 3935071Google Scholar
  8. Biotene (2006) Biotene: dry mouth therapy by laclede. Available: http://www.laclede.com/products/toothpaste.asp. Accessed 2006 Dec
  9. Blais BW, Yamazaki H (1992) A simple and inexpensive glucose oxidase substrate system for enzyme immunoassay. Immunol Invest 21:581–588Google Scholar
  10. Bohmhammel K, Huttl R, Pritzkat K, Wolf G (1993a) Calorimetric investigations into enzyme catalysed glucose oxidation. Thermochim Acta 217:1–7Google Scholar
  11. Bohmhammel K, Huttl R, Pritzkat K, Wolf G (1993b) Thermokinetic investigations into enzyme catalysed glucose oxidation. Thermochim Acta 217:9–18Google Scholar
  12. Bright HJ, Appleby M (1969) The pH dependence of the individual steps in the glucose oxidase reaction. J Biol Chem 244:3625–3634Google Scholar
  13. Brookes GC, Neville, Kniel B (2005) An analysis of labelling requirements, market dynamics and cost implications. The Global GM Market—implications for the European food chain. UK: PG Economics LimitedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown JQ, McShane MJ (2006) Modeling of spherical fluorescent glucose microsensor systems: design of enzymatic smart tattoos. Biosens Bioelectron 21:1760–1769Google Scholar
  15. Brown JQ, Srivastava R, McShane MJ (2005) Encapsulation of glucose oxidase and an oxygen-quenched fluorophore in polyelectrolyte-coated calcium alginate microspheres as optical glucose sensor systems. Biosens Bioelectron 21:212–216Google Scholar
  16. Brown JQ, Srivastava R, Zhu H, McShane MJ (2006) Enzymatic fluorescent microsphere glucose sensors: evaluation of response under dynamic conditions. Diabetes Technol Ther 8:288–295Google Scholar
  17. Bullen RA, Arnot TC, Lakeman JB, Walsh FC (2006) Biofuel cells and their development. Biosens Bioelectron 21:2015–2045Google Scholar
  18. Buschle-Diller G, Radhakrishnaiah R, Freeman H, Zeronian SH (2002) Environmentally benign preparatory processes—introducing a closed-loop system C99-AE07. NTC Project: C99-AE07 (formerly C99-A07). Auburn University Samuel Ginn College of Engineering. 10 pGoogle Scholar
  19. CalabreseBarton S, Gallaway J, Atanassov P (2004) Enzymatic biofuel cells for implantable and microscale devices. Chemical Review 35:4867–4886Google Scholar
  20. Candy DJ (1979) Glucose oxidase and other enzymes of hydrogen peroxide metabolism from cuticle of Schistocerca americana gregaria. Insect Biochem 9:661–665Google Scholar
  21. Chen T, Barton SC, Binyamin G, Gao Z, Zhang Y, Kim HH, Heller A (2001) A miniature biofuel cell. J Am Chem Soc 123:8630–8631Google Scholar
  22. Clark JR (1995) Method of geochemical prospecting. US patent 5385827Google Scholar
  23. Clark JR (1996) Leach solution containing glucose, galactose, catalase, glucose oxidase, galactose oxidase, ascorbic acid and water soluble metal cyanides and halides. US Patent 5491078Google Scholar
  24. Codex Alimentarius Commission (2007a) Glucono delta-lactone (575). Food additive details. Updated up to the 30th Session of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (2007) ed: Codex General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) Online DatabaseGoogle Scholar
  25. Codex Alimentarius Commission (2007b) Glucose oxidase (Aspergillus niger var.) (1102). Food additive details. Updated up to the 30th Session of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (2007) ed: Codex General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) Online DatabaseGoogle Scholar
  26. Corriher S (2001) Yeast’s crucial roles in breadbaking. Fine Cooking 43:80–81Google Scholar
  27. Coulthard CE, Michaelis R, Short WF, Sykes G (1945) Notatin: an anti-bacterial glucose-aerodehydrogenase from Penicillium notatum Westling and Penicillium resticulosum sp. nov. Biochem J 39:24–36Google Scholar
  28. Davis F, Higson SPJ (2006) Biofuel cells—recent advances and applications. Biosens Bioelectron 22:1224–1235Google Scholar
  29. Davis JB, Yarbrough HF Jr (1962) Preliminary experiments on a microbial fuel cell. Sci Mag 137:615–616Google Scholar
  30. Desai A, Verma S, Mitchison TJ, Walczak CE (1999) Kin I kinesins are microtubule-destabilizing enzymes. Cell 96:69–78Google Scholar
  31. Dobbenie D, Uyttendaele M, Debevere J (1995) Antibacterial activity of the glucose oxidase/glucose system in liquid whole egg. J Food Protect 58:273–279Google Scholar
  32. Dondero M, Egana W, Tarky W, Cifuentes A, Torres JA (1993) Glucose oxidase/Cqtalase improves preservation of shrimp (Heterocarpus reedi). J Food Sci 58:774–779Google Scholar
  33. Dosch M, Weller MG, Bückmann AF, Niessner R (1998) Homogeneous immunoassay for the detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT) based on the reactivation of apoglucose oxidase using a novel FAD-trinitrotoluene conjugate. Fresen J Anal Chem 361:174–178Google Scholar
  34. Edlich W, Lorenz G, Lyr H, Nega E, Pommer EH (1989) New aspects on the infection mechanism of Botrytis cinerea Pers. Eur J Plant Pathol 95:53–62Google Scholar
  35. Eichenseer H, Mathews MC, Bi JL, Murphy JB, Felton GW (1999) Salivary glucose oxidase: multifunctional roles for Helicoverpa zea? Arch Insect Biochem 42:99–109Google Scholar
  36. Enzyme Technical Association (2001) Enzymes A Primer on use and benefits today and tomorrowGoogle Scholar
  37. Eremin AN, Makarenko MV, Zhukovskaia LA, RV M (2006) Isolation and characterization of extracellular glucose oxidase from Penicillium adametzii LF F-2044.1. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol 42:345–352Google Scholar
  38. EuropaBio, ESAB (2005) Input to the SusChem strategic research agenda. Industrial or White BiotechnologyGoogle Scholar
  39. FDA/CFSAN (2002a) Agency Response Letter: GRAS Notice No. GRN 000106Google Scholar
  40. FDA/CFSAN (2002b) Agency Response Letter: GRAS Notice No. GRN 000089Google Scholar
  41. Fiedurek J, Gromada A (1997) Screening and mutagenesis of molds for improvement of the simultaneous production of catalase and glucose oxidase. Enzyme Microb Tech 20:344–347Google Scholar
  42. Field CE, Pivarnik LF, Barnett SM, Rand AG (1986) Utilization of glucose oxidase for extending the shelf-life of fish. J Food Sci 51:66–70Google Scholar
  43. Figoni PI (2003) Bleaching and maturing agents. How baking works: exploring the fundamentals of baking science, Wiley, 1st edn, pp 71 ISBN 0-471-26856-9Google Scholar
  44. Food standards Australia New Zealand (2002) Final assessment report. Application A404–Lactoperoxidase systemGoogle Scholar
  45. Fox PF, Stepaniak L (1993) Enzymes in cheese technology. Int Dairy J 3:509–530Google Scholar
  46. Franziska Hanft PK (2006) Studies on the effect of glucose oxidase in bread making. J Sci Food Agr 86:1699–1704Google Scholar
  47. Gary JP (2000) Low- and reduced-alcohol wine: a review. J Wine Res 11:129–144Google Scholar
  48. Gerd W, Svetlana T, Jasmina Z, Draginja P, Vladimir L (2004) The chemical mechanism of action of glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger. Mol Cell Biochem 260:69–83Google Scholar
  49. Giampietro O, Pilo A, Buzzigoli G, Boni C, Navalesi R (1982) Four methods for glucose assay compared for various glucose concentrations and under different clinical conditions. Clin Chem 28:2405–2407Google Scholar
  50. Gibson QH, Swoboda BEP, Massey V (1964) Kinetics and mechanism of action of glucose oxidase. J Biol Chem 239:3927–3934Google Scholar
  51. Godjevargova T, Turmanova RDS (2004) Gluconic acid production in bioreactor with immobilized glucose oxidase plus catalase on polymer membrane adjacent to anion–exchange membrane. Macromol Biosci 4:950–956Google Scholar
  52. Goldberg RN, Tewari YB, Bhat TN (2004) Thermodynamics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions—a database for quantitative biochemistry. Bioinformatics 20:2874–2877Google Scholar
  53. Goodsell DS (2006) Glucose oxidase. Molecule of the month: PCSB Protein Data BankGoogle Scholar
  54. Gouda MD, Singh SA, Rao AGA, Thakur MS, Karanth NG (2003) Thermal inactivation of glucose oxidase. J Biol Chem 278:24324–24333Google Scholar
  55. Hamlyn P (2000) Bringing the benefits of biotechnology to textiles and clothing. Symposium on Biotechnology in the Textile Industry. Available: http://fungus.org.uk/cv/biotexnet_8.htm. Accessed 2007 Dec
  56. Harborn U, Xie B, Venkatesh R, Danielsson B (1997) Evaluation of a miniaturized thermal biosensor for the determination of glucose in whole blood. Clin Chim Acta 267:225–237Google Scholar
  57. Hatzinikolaou DG, Hansen OC, Macris BJ, Tingey A, Kekos D, Goodenough P, Stougaard P (1996) A new glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger: characterization and regulation studies of enzyme and gene. Appl Microbiol Biot 46:371–381Google Scholar
  58. Huttl R, Bohmhammel K, Pritzkat K, Wolf G (1993) Problems associated with using thermal measurement principles in enzymatic reactions. Thermochim Acta 229:205–213Google Scholar
  59. Isaksen A, Adler-Nissen J (1997) Antioxidative effect of glucose oxidase and catalase in mayonnaises of different oxidative susceptibility. I. Product trials. Lebensm-Wiss Technol 30:841–846Google Scholar
  60. Johnson JL, London RE, Rajagopalan KV (1989) Covalently bound phosphate residues in bovine milk xanthine oxidase and in glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger: a reevaluation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:6493–6497Google Scholar
  61. Kang S-O, Shin K-S, Han Y-H, Youn H-D, Hah YC (1993) Purification and characterisation of an extracellular peroxidase from white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Biochim Biophys Acta 1163:158–164Google Scholar
  62. Kantt CA, Bouzas J, Dondero M, Torres JA (1993) Glucose oxidase/catalase solution for on-board control of shrimp microbial spoilage: model studies. J Food Sci 58:104–107Google Scholar
  63. Katz E, Willner I, Kotlyar AB (1999) A non-compartmentalized glucose|O2 biofuel cell by bioengineered electrode surfaces. J Electroanal Chem 479:64–68Google Scholar
  64. Keilin D, Hartree EF (1947) Properties of glucose oxidase (Notatin). Biochem J 42:221Google Scholar
  65. Kim KK, Fravel DR, GC P (1990) Glucose oxidase as the antifungal principle of talaron from Talaromyces flavus. Can J Microbiol 36:760–764Google Scholar
  66. Kirk O, Borchert TV, Fuglsang CC (2002) Industrial enzyme applications. Curr Opin Biotech 13:345–351Google Scholar
  67. Kleppet K (1966) The effect of hydrogen peroxide on glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger. Biochemistry 5:139–143Google Scholar
  68. Klinman J (2007) How do enzymes activate oxygen without inactivating themselves? Acc Chem Res 40:325–333Google Scholar
  69. Klonoff DC (2005) A review of continuous glucose monitoring technology. Diabetes Technol Ther 7:770–775Google Scholar
  70. Kriechbaum M, Heilmann HJ, Wientges FJ, Hahn M, Jany K-D, Gassen HG et al (1989) Cloning and DNA sequence analysis of the glucose oxidase gene from Aspergillus niger NRRL-3. FEBS Lett 255:63–66Google Scholar
  71. Labuza TP, Breene WM (1989) Applications of “Active packaging” for improvement of shelf-life and nutritional quality of fresh and extended shelf-life foods 1. J Food Process Pres 13:1–69Google Scholar
  72. Lantero OJ, Shetty JK (2004) Process for the preparation of gluconic acid and gluconic acid produced thereby. US Patent 2004/77062 A1Google Scholar
  73. Leiter E, Marx F, Pusztahelyi T, Haas H, Pocsi I (2004) Penicillium chrysogenum glucose oxidase—a study on its antifungal effects. J Appl Microbiol 97:1201–1209Google Scholar
  74. Leskovac V, Trivic S, Wohlfahrt G, Kandrac J, Pericin D (2005) Glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger: the mechanism of action with molecular oxygen, quinones, and one-electron acceptors. Int J Biochem 37:731–750Google Scholar
  75. Liu S, Oeljeklaus S, Gerhardt B, Tudzynski B (1998) Purification and characterization of glucose oxidase of Botrytis cinerea. Mol Plant Pathol 53:123–132Google Scholar
  76. Low N, Jiang Z, Ooraikul B, Dokhani S, Palcic MM (1989) Reduction of glucose content in potatoes with glucose oxidase. J Food Sci 54:118–121Google Scholar
  77. Magnuson JK, Lasure LL (2004) Organic acid production by filamentous fungi. In: Tkacz J, Lange L (eds) Advances in fungal bio/technology for industry, agriculture and medicine. Springer, Berlin, pp 307–340Google Scholar
  78. Malherbe DF, Toit Md, Otero RRC, Rensburg Pv, Pretorius IS (2003) Expression of the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its potential applications in wine production. Appl Microbiol Biot 61:502–511Google Scholar
  79. Marks NE, Grandison AS, Lewis MJ (2001) Challenge testing of the lactoperoxidase system in pasteurized milk. J Appl Microbiol 91:735–741Google Scholar
  80. Massa S, Petruccioli M, Brocchi GF, Altieri C, Sinigaglia M, Spano G (2001) Growth inhibition by glucose oxidase system of enterotoxic Escherichia coli and Salmonella derby: in vitro studies. World J Microb Biot 17:287–291Google Scholar
  81. McLeod R, Ough CS (1970) Some recent studies with glucose oxidase in wine. Am J Enol Vitic 21:54–60Google Scholar
  82. Megazyme (2003) Glucose oxidase/catalase mixture. Available: http://secure.megazyme.com/downloads/en/data/E-GOXCA.pdf. Accessed 2008 Jan
  83. Mello LD, Kubota LT (2002) Review of the use of biosensors as analytical tools in the food and drink industries. Food Chem 77:237–256Google Scholar
  84. Merkx-Jacques M, Bede JC (2004) Caterpillar salivary enzymes: “eliciting” a response. Phytoprotection 85:33–37Google Scholar
  85. Merkx-Jacques M, Bede JC (2005) Influence of diet on the larval beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, glucose oxidase activity. J Insect Sci 5:1–9Google Scholar
  86. Michael M, Gerd W, Jörg K, Dietmar S (1998) Aspects of the mechanism of catalysis of glucose oxidase: a docking, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical study. J Comput Aided Mol Des 12:425–440Google Scholar
  87. Miron J, Gonzalez MP, Vazquez JA, Pastrana L, Murado MA (2004) A mathematical model for glucose oxidase kinetics, including inhibitory, deactivant and diffusional effects, and their interactions. Enzmye Microb Tech 34:513–522Google Scholar
  88. Moore MM, Chen T (2006) Mutagenicity of bromate: implications for cancer risk assessment. Toxicology 221:190–196Google Scholar
  89. Muehlbauer MJ, Guilbeau EJ, Towe BC (1989) Model for a thermoelectric enzyme glucose sensor. Anal Chem 61:77–83Google Scholar
  90. Muller D (1928) Oxidation von Glukose mit Extrakten aus Aspegillus niger. Biochem Z 199:136–170Google Scholar
  91. Murray FR, Llewellyn DJ, Peacock WJ, Dennis ES (1997) Isolation of the glucose oxidase gene from Talaromyces flavus and characterisation of its role in the biocontrol of Verticillium dahliae. Curr Genet 32:367–375Google Scholar
  92. Musser RO, Hum-Musser SM, Eichenseer H, Peiffer M, Ervin G, Murphy JB, Felton GW (2002) Herbivory: caterpillar saliva beats plant defences. Nature 416:599–600Google Scholar
  93. Musser RO, Cipollini DF, Hum-Musser SM, Williams SA, Brown JK, Felton GW (2005) Evidence that the caterpillar salivary enzyme glucose oxidase provides herbivore offense in solanaceous plants. Arch Insect Biochem 58:128–137Google Scholar
  94. Nakamura S, Fujiki S (1968) Comparative studies on the glucose oxidases of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium amagasakiense. J Biochem 63:51–58Google Scholar
  95. Nakamura S, Ogura Y (1968a) Mode of inhibition of glucose oxidase by metal ions. J Biochem 64:439–447Google Scholar
  96. Nakamura S, Ogura Y (1968b) Action mechanism of glucose oxidase of Aspergillus niger. J Biochem 63:308–316Google Scholar
  97. Nakao K, Kiefner A, Furumoto K, Harada T (1997) Production of gluconic acid with immobilized glucose oxidase in airlift reactors. Chem Eng Sci 52:4127–4133Google Scholar
  98. National Library of Medicine (2007a) Brand name: pet gold tartar control toothpaste for dogs & cats. Household Products DatabaseGoogle Scholar
  99. National Library of Medicine (2007b) Brand name: burts bees, baby bee buttermilk lotion for sensitive skin. Household Products DatabaseGoogle Scholar
  100. Newman JD, Turner APF (2005) Home blood glucose biosensors: a commercial perspective. Biosens Bioelectron 20:2435–2453Google Scholar
  101. Ohashi K, Natori S, Kubo T (1999) Expression of amylase and glucose oxidase in the hypopharyngeal gland with an age-dependent role change of the worker honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). Eur J Biochem 265:127–133Google Scholar
  102. Park S, Boo H, Chung TD (2006) Electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensors. Anal Chim Acta 556:46–57Google Scholar
  103. Parpinello G, Chinnici F, Versari A, Riponi C (2002) Preliminary study on glucose oxidase–catalase enzyme system to control the browning of apple and pear purées. Lebensm-Wiss Technol 35:239–243Google Scholar
  104. Pazur JH, Kleppe K (1964) The oxidation of glucose and related compounds by glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger. Biochemistry 3:578–583Google Scholar
  105. Pei J, Tian F, Thundat T (2004) Glucose biosensor based on the microcantilever. Anal Chem 76:292–297Google Scholar
  106. Pfreundschuh M, Lehmann M, Steinmetz T, Kirchner HH, Diehl V (1988) Monoclonal glucose-oxidase-anti-glucose-oxidase (GAG) immunosandwich assay for the detection of monoclonal antibodies on routine hematological smears. Ann Hematol 56:125–130Google Scholar
  107. Pickering GJ, Heatherbell DA, Barnes MF (1998) Optimising glucose conversion in the production of reduced alcohol wine using glucose oxidase. Food Res Int 31:685–692Google Scholar
  108. Pickering GJ, Heatherbell DA, Barnes MF (1999a) The production of reduced-alcohol wine using glucose oxidase treated juice. Part I. Composition. Am J Enol Vitic 50:291–298Google Scholar
  109. Pickering GJ, Heatherbell DA, Barnes MF (1999b) The production of reduced-alcohol wine using glucose oxidase-treated juice. Part II. Stability and SO2-binding. Am J Enol Vitic 50:299–306Google Scholar
  110. Pickering GJ, Heatherbell DA, Barnes MF (1999c) The production of reduced-alcohol wine using glucose oxidase-treated juice. Part III. Sensory. Am J Enol Vitic 50:307–316Google Scholar
  111. Pickup JC, Hussain F, Evans ND, Rolinski OJ, Birch DJS (2005) Fluorescence-based glucose sensors. Biosens Bioelectron 20:2555–2565Google Scholar
  112. Porter DD, Porter HG (1984) A glucose oxidase immunoenzyme stain for the detection of viral antigen or antibody on nitrocellulose transfer blots. J Immunol Methods 72:1–9Google Scholar
  113. Pramod K (1999) Liquid laundry detergents containing stabilized glucose/glucose oxidase as hydrogen peroxide generation system. European Patent EP 0603931B1Google Scholar
  114. Pulci V, D’Ovidio R, Petruccioli M, Federici F (2004) The glucose oxidase of Penicillium variabile P16: gene cloning, sequencing and expression. Lett Appl Microbiol 38:233–238Google Scholar
  115. Ramachandran S, Fontanille P, Pandey A, Larroche C (2006) Gluconic acid: properties, applications and microbial production. Food Technol Biotech 44:185–195Google Scholar
  116. Ramanathan K, Danielsson B (2001) Principles and applications of thermal biosensors. Biosens Bioelectron 16:417–423Google Scholar
  117. Ramasamy K, Kelley RL, CA R (1985) Lack of lignin degradation by glucose oxidase-negative mutants of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 131:436–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Rando D, Kohring GW, Giffhorn F (1997) Production, purification and characterization of glucose oxidase from a newly isolated strain of Penicillium pinophilum. Appl Microbiol Biot 48:34–40Google Scholar
  119. Rasiah IA, Sutton KH, Low FL, Lin HM, Gerrard JA (2005) Crosslinking of wheat dough proteins by glucose oxidase and the resulting effects on bread and croissants. Food Chem 89:325–332Google Scholar
  120. Rathlev T (1983) Glucose oxidase immunohistochemical detection of antinuclear antibodies. PCT Patent WO 1983/000877 A1Google Scholar
  121. Salmon S, Shi C, Liu J (2006) Treatment of fabrics, fibers, or yarns. US Patent 2006/42020 A1Google Scholar
  122. Sandholm M, Ali-Vehmas T, Kaartinen L, Junnila M (1988) Glucose oxidase (GOD) as a source of hydrogen peroxide for the lactoperoxidase (LPO) system in milk: antibacterial effect of the GOD–LPO system against mastitis pathogens. J Vet Med B 35:346–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Santos KS, Delazari dos Santos L, Anita Mendes M, Monson de Souza B, Malaspina O, Palma MS (2005) Profiling the proteome complement of the secretion from hypopharyngeal gland of Africanized nurse-honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). Insect Biochem Molec 35:85–91Google Scholar
  124. Seifu E, Buys EM, Donkin EF (2005) Significance of the lactoperoxidase system in the dairy industry and its potential applications: a review. Trends Food Sci Tech 16:137–154Google Scholar
  125. Shin K-S, Youn H-D, Han Y-H, Kang S-O, Hah YC (1993) Purification and characterisation of d-glucose oxidase from white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Eur J Biochem 215:747–752Google Scholar
  126. Simpson C (2006) Isolation, purification and characterization of a novel glucose oxidase from Penicillium canescens Tt42: Rhodes UniversityGoogle Scholar
  127. Singh OV, Kapur N, Singh RP (2005) Evaluation of agro-food byproducts for gluconic acid production by Aspergillus niger ORS-4.410. World J Microb Biot 21:519–524Google Scholar
  128. Sisak C, Csanadi Z, Ronay E, Szajani B (2006) Elimination of glucose in egg white using immobilized glucose oxidase. Enzyme Microb Tech 39:1002–1007Google Scholar
  129. Solomon B, Lotan N, Katchalski-Katzir E (1977) Enzymic activity and conformational properties of native and crosslinked glucose oxidase. Biopolymers 16:1837–1851Google Scholar
  130. Sukhacheva MV, Davydova ME, Netrusov AI (2004) Production of Penicillium funiculosum 433 glucose oxidase and its properties. Appl Biochem Micro 40:25–29Google Scholar
  131. Swoboda BEP, Massey V (1965) Purification and properties of the glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger. J Biol Chem 240:2209–2215Google Scholar
  132. Terry LA, White SF, Tigwell LJ (2005) The application of biosensors to fresh produce and the wider food industry. J Agric Food Chem 53:1309–1316Google Scholar
  133. The Freedonia Group (2007) World Enzymes to 2011—Demand and Sales Forecasts, Market Share, Market Size, Market LeadersGoogle Scholar
  134. Tiina M, Sandholm M (1989) Antibacterial effect of the glucose oxidase–glucose system on food-poisoning organisms. Int J Food Microbiol 8:165–174Google Scholar
  135. Toren EC, Burger FJ (1968) Trace determination of metal ion inhibitors of the glucose–glucose oxidase system. Microchim Acta 56:538–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Tsai YC, Li SC, Chen JM (2005) Cast thin film biosensor design based on a Nafion backbone, a multiwalled carbon nanotube conduit, and a glucose oxidase function. Langmuir 21:3653–3658Google Scholar
  137. Tsuge H, Natsuaki O, Ohashi K (1975) Purification, properties, and molecular features of glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger. J Biochem 78:835–843Google Scholar
  138. Tzanov T, Costa SA, Gubitz GM, Cavaco-Paulo A (2002) Hydrogen peroxide generation with immobilized glucose oxidase for textile bleaching. J Biotechnol 93:87–94Google Scholar
  139. Uppoor R, Niebergall P, James E (2001) The antioxidant system b-d(+) glucose–glucose oxidase–catalase: tests for pyrogenicity and antigenicity. Pharm Dev Technol 6:31–38Google Scholar
  140. Vamvakaki V, Tsagaraki K, Chaniotakis N (2006) Carbon nanofiber-based glucose biosensor. Anal Chem 78:5538–5542Google Scholar
  141. Vemulapalli V, Hoseney RC (1998) Glucose oxidase effects on gluten and water solubles. Cereal Chem 75:859–862Google Scholar
  142. Vemulapalli V, Miller KA, Hoseney RC (1998) Glucose oxidase in breadmaking systems. Cereal Chem 75:439–442Google Scholar
  143. Vroemen AJ, Beverini M (1999) Enzymatic production of gluconic acid or its salts. US patent 5897995Google Scholar
  144. Weibel MK, Dodge C (1975) Biochemical fuel cell—demonstration of an obligatory pathway involving an external circuit for the enzymatically catalyzed aerobic oxidation of glucose. Arch Biochem Biophys 169:146–151Google Scholar
  145. Wilkins E, Atanasov P (1996) Glucose monitoring: state of the art and future possibilities. Med Eng Phys 18:273–288Google Scholar
  146. Willner I, Katz E, Patolsky F, Bückmannb AF (1998) Biofuel cell based on glucose oxidase and microperoxidase-11 monolayer-functionalized electrodes. J Chem Soc Perkins Trans 2:1817–1822Google Scholar
  147. Wilson GS, Hu Y (2000) Enzyme-based biosensors for in vivo measurements. Chem Rev 100:2693–2704Google Scholar
  148. Wilson R, Turner APF (1992) Glucose oxidase: an ideal enzyme. Biosens Bioelectron 7:165–185Google Scholar
  149. Witteveen CFB, Veenhuis M, Visser J (1992) Localization of glucose oxidase and catalase activities in Aspergillus niger. Appl Environ Microb 58:1190–1194Google Scholar
  150. Wohlfahrt G, Witt S, Hendle J, Schomburg D, Kalisz HM, Hecht H-J (1999) 1.8 and 1.9 A resolution structures of the Penicillium amagasakiense and Aspergillus niger glucose oxidases as a basis for modelling substrate complexes. Acta Crystallogr D 55:969–977Google Scholar
  151. Wu G, Shortt BJ, Lawrence EB, Levine EB, Fitzsimmons KC, Shah DM (1995) Disease resistance conferred by expression of a gene encoding H2O2-generating glucose oxidase in transgenic potato plants. Plant Cell 7:1357–1368Google Scholar
  152. Yahiro AT, Lee SM, Kimble DO (1964) Bioelectrochemistry: I. Enzyme utilizing bio-fuel cell studies. Biochim Biophys Acta 88:375–383Google Scholar
  153. Yang X, Zhou Z, Xiao D, Choi MMF (2006) A fluorescent glucose biosensor based on immobilized glucose oxidase on bamboo inner shell membrane. Biosens Bioelectron 21:1613–1620Google Scholar
  154. Yoo W, Rand AG (1995) Antibacterial effect of glucose oxidase on growth of Pseudomonas fragi as related to pH. J Food Sci 60:868–871Google Scholar
  155. Yu RJ, Scott EV (1997) Method of using gluconic acid or gluconolactone for treating wrinkles. US Patent 5,677,340Google Scholar
  156. Zhang Y, Tadigadapa S (2004) Calorimetric biosensors with integrated microfluidic channels. Biosens Bioelectron 19:1733–1743Google Scholar
  157. Zhu Z, Momeu C, Zakhartsev M, Schwaneberg U (2006) Making glucose oxidase fit for biofuel cell applications by directed protein evolution. Biosens Bioelectron 21:2046–2051Google Scholar
  158. Zong N, Wang C (2004) Induction of nicotine in tobacco by herbivory and its relation to glucose oxidase activity in the labial gland of three noctuid caterpillars. Chinese Sci Bull 49:1596–1601Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology & Food Engineering GroupMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.P.O. Box 109175, NewmarketAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations