Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 77, Issue 4, pp 751–762 | Cite as

Perspectives of biotechnological production of l-tyrosine and its applications

  • Tina Lütke-EverslohEmail author
  • Christine Nicole S. Santos
  • Gregory Stephanopoulos


The aromatic amino acid l-tyrosine is used as a dietary supplement and has promise as a valuable precursor compound for various industrial and pharmaceutical applications. In contrast to chemical production, biotechnological methods can produce l-tyrosine from biomass feedstocks under environmentally friendly and near carbon-free conditions. In this minireview, various strategies for synthesizing l-tyrosine by employing biocatalysts are discussed, including initial approaches as well as more recent advances. Whereas early attempts to engineer l-tyrosine-excreting microbes were based on auxotrophic and antimetabolite-resistant mutants, recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid technology and a vastly increasing knowledge of bacterial physiology allowed recently for more targeted genetic manipulations and strain improvements. As an alternative route, l-tyrosine can also be obtained from the conversion of phenol, pyruvate, and ammonia or phenol and serine in reactions catalyzed by the enzyme tyrosine phenol lyase.


Aromatic amino acids Tyrosine Metabolic engineering Tyrosine phenol lyase Escherichia coli Corynebacterium glutamicum 



Financial support from the Singapore–MIT Alliance and fellowships from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (TLE) and the National Science Foundation (CNS) are gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tina Lütke-Eversloh
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Christine Nicole S. Santos
    • 1
  • Gregory Stephanopoulos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Institut für Biowissenschaften, MikrobiologieUniversität RostockRostockGermany

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