Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 77, Issue 1, pp 1–12

Recent advances using green and red fluorescent protein variants



Fluorescent proteins have proven to be excellent tools for live-cell imaging. In addition to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its variants, recent progress has led to the development of monomeric red fluorescent proteins (mRFPs) that show improved properties with respect to maturation, brightness, and the monomeric state. This review considers green and red spectral variants, their paired use for live-cell imaging in vivo, in vitro, and in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies, in addition to other recent “two-color” advances including photoswitching and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). It will be seen that green and red fluorescent proteins now exist with nearly ideal properties for dual-color microscopy and FRET.


BiFC Fluorescent protein FRET GFP Microscopy RFP Photoactivation Two-photon 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annette Müller-Taubenberger
    • 1
  • Kurt I. Anderson
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Zellbiologie (ABI)Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMünchenGermany
  2. 2.Beatson Institute for Cancer ResearchGlasgowUK

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