Biodegradation of textile azo dye by Shewanella decolorationis S12 under microaerophilic conditions
The complete biodegradation of azo dye, Fast Acid Red GR, was observed under microaerophilic conditions by Shewanella decolorationis S12. Although the highest decolorizing rate was measured under anaerobic condition and the highest biomass was obtained under aerobic condition, a further biodegradation of decolorizing products can only be achieved under microaerophilic conditions. Under microaerophilic conditions, S. decolorationis S12 could use a range of carbon sources for azo dye decolorization, including lactate, formate, glucose and sucrose, with lactate being the optimal carbon source. Sulfonated aromatic amines were not detected during the biotransformation of Fast Acid Red GR, while H2S formed. The decolorizing products, aniline, 1,4-diaminobenzene and 1-amino-2-naphthol, were followed by complete biodegradation through catechol and 4-aminobenzoic acid based on the analysis results of GC-MS and HPLC.
KeywordsAzo dye biodegradation Microaerophilic conditions Shewanella decolorationis S12
This research was supported by the Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (3050009), Guangdong Provincial Key Programs for Science and Technology Development (05100365), Guangdong Provincial Natural Science Foundation (No.015017), Guangdong Provincial Programs for Science and Technology Development (2006B36703001) and Guangzhou Programs for Science and Technology Development (2006Z3-E0461).
- Blümel S, Busse HJ, Stolz A, Kämpfer P (2001) Xenophilus azovorans gen. nov. sp. nov., a soil bacterium able to degrade azo dyes of the Orange II type. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:1831–1837Google Scholar
- Blümel S, Contzen M, Lutz M, Stolz A, Knackmuss H-J (1998) Isolation of a bacterial strain with the ability to utilize the sulfonated azo compound 4-carboxy-4′-sulfoazobenzene as the sole source of carbon and energy. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:2315–2317Google Scholar
- Chung KT, Cerniglia CE (1992) Mutagenicity of azo dyes: structure activity relationships. Mutat Res 77:201–220Google Scholar
- Glässer A, Liebelt U, Hempel DC (1992) Design of a two-stage process for total degradation of azo dyes. DECHEMA Biotechnol Conf 5B:1085–1088Google Scholar
- Heidelberg JF, Paulsen IT, Nelson KE, Gaidos EJ, Nelson WC, Read TD, Eisen JA, Seshadri R, Ward N, Methe B, Clayton RA, Meyer T, Tsapin A, Scott J, Beanan M, Brinkac L, Daugherty S, DeBoy RT, Dodson RJ, Durkin AS, Haft DH, Kolonay JF, Madupu R, Peterson JD, Umayam LA, White O, Wolf AM, Vamathevan J, Weidman J, Impraim M, Lee K, Berry K, Lee C, Mueller J, Khouri H, Gill J, Utterback TR, McDonald LA, Feldblyum TV, Smith HO, Venter JC, Nealson KH, Fraser CM (2002) Genome sequence of the dissimilatory metal ion-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis. Nat biotech 20:1118–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Keck A, Klein J, Kudlich M, Stolz A, Knackmuss HJ, Mattes R (1997) Reduction of azo dyes by redox mediators originating in the naphthalenesulfonic acid degradation pathway of Sphingomonas sp. strain BN6. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:3684–3690Google Scholar
- Krooneman J, Wieringa EBA, Moore ERB, Gerritse J, Prins RA, Gottschal JC (1996) Isolation of Alcaligenes sp. strain L6 at low oxygen concentration and degradation of 3-chlorobenzoate via a pathway not involving (chloro) catechols. Appl Environ Microbiol 62:2427–2434Google Scholar
- Nealson KH, Scott J (2003) Ecophysiology of the genus Shewanella. In: Dworkin M (ed) The Prokaryotes, vol. 2004. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Olsen RH, Kukor JJ, Kaphammer B (1994) A novel toluene-3-monooxygenase pathway cloned from Pseudomonas pickettii PKO1. J Bacteriol 176:3749–3756Google Scholar
- Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (1989) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NYGoogle Scholar
- Zhou N, Jenkins A, Chan Kwo Chion CKN, Leak DJ (1999) The alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 is closely related to aromatic monooxygenases and catalyzes aromatic monohydroxylation of benzene, toluene, and phenol. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:1589–1595Google Scholar