Biocatalytic ketone reduction—a powerful tool for the production of chiral alcohols—part II: whole-cell reductions
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Enzymes are able to perform reactions under mild conditions, e.g., pH and temperature, with remarkable chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity. Due to this feature the number of biocatalysts used in organic synthesis has rapidly increased during the last decades, especially for the production of chiral compounds. The present review highlights biotechnological processes for the production of chiral alcohols by reducing prochiral ketones with whole cells. Microbial transformations feature different characteristics in comparison to isolated enzymes. Enzymes that are used in whole-cell biotransformations are often more stable due to the presence of their natural environment inside the cell. Because reductase-catalyzed reactions are dependent on cofactors, one major task in process development is to provide an effective method for regeneration of the consumed cofactors. Many whole-cell biocatalysts offer their internal cofactor regeneration that can be used by adding cosubstrates, glucose or, in the case of cyanobacteria, simply light. In this paper, various processes carried out on laboratory and industrial scales are presented. Thereby, attention is turned to process parameters, e.g., conversion, yield, enantiomeric excess, and process strategies, e.g., the application of biphasic systems. The biocatalytic production of chiral alcohols utilizing isolated enzymes is presented in part I of this review (Goldberg et al., Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2007).
KeywordsKetone reduction Whole cell biotransformation Chiral alcohol
Both Goldberg and Schroer did equally contribute to this review.
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