Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 76, Issue 1, pp 101–108 | Cite as

Medium optimization of antifungal lipopeptide, iturin A, production by Bacillus subtilis in solid-state fermentation by response surface methodology

  • Shinji Mizumoto
  • Makoto ShodaEmail author
Biotechnological Products and Process Engineering


Iturin A, a lipopeptide antibiotic produced by Bacillus subtilis RB14-CS, suppresses the growth of various plant pathogens. Here, enhancement of iturin A production in solid-state fermentation (SSF) on okara, a soybean curd residue produced during tofu manufacturing, was accomplished using statistical experimental design. Primary experiments showed that the concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources were the main factors capable of enhancing iturin A production, whereas initial pH, initial water content, temperature, relative humidity, and volume of inoculum were only minor factors. Glucose and soybean meal were the most effective among tested carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Based on these preliminary findings, response surface methodology was applied to predict the optimum amounts of the carbon and nitrogen sources in the medium. The maximum iturin A concentration was 5,591 μg/g initial wet okara under optimized condition. Subsequent experiments confirmed that iturin A production was significantly improved under the predicted optimal medium conditions. The SSF product generated under the optimized conditions exhibited significantly higher suppressive effect on the damping-off of tomato caused by Rhizoctonia solani K-1 compared with the product generated under the non-optimized conditions.


Optimization Iturin A Bacillus subtilis Solid-state fermentation Response surface methodology 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical Resources LaboratoryTokyo Institute of TechnologyYokohamaJapan

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