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Effects of ammonia on hydrolysis of proteins and lipids from fish residues

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Abstract

This study investigated the influence of ammonia on the hydrolysis rates of proteins and lipids in fish residues under mesophilic anaerobic incubation at a neutral pH. The hydrolysis kinetics of the fish residues, which contained primarily proteins and lipids, were examined at initial ammonia concentrations of 0–16 g N l−1. Carbon hydrolysis was suppressed more by ammonium in the acidogenesis phase than in the acidogenesis/methanogenesis period of a single-stage anaerobic digestion. Conversely, hydrolysis of compounds containing nitrogen was similarly suppressed by ammonia during acidogenesis and acidogenesis/methanogenesis phases of a single-stage anaerobic digestion. Parameter uncertainty analysis demonstrated that the proteins fraction in the fish residues was entirely biodegradable. Model fitting demonstrated that two fractions of lipid substrates exist, namely, easy and hard to biodegrade with hydrolysis rates that were affected differently by ammonia content.

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Acknowledgment

This work was financially supported by the National Science and Technology Supporting Program of China (2006BAJ04A06), Key Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (107122), Shanghai-Rhone Alpes Region International Scientific Research Cooperation Fund (06SR07105), and the Program for Young Excellent Talents in Tongji University (2006KJ032).

Author information

Correspondence to Pin-Jing He.

Appendix I

Appendix I

The confidential ellipse of Eq. 2 with two parameters is the region in which values for variables θ 1 and θ 2 satisfy the inequality in Eq. 4 (Smith et al. 1998).

$$ \frac{1} {{\sigma ^{2} }}{\left[ {A_{{11}} {\left( {\theta _{1} - \widehat{\theta }_{1} } \right)}^{2} + A_{{22}} {\left( {\theta _{2} - \widehat{\theta }_{2} } \right)}^{2} + 2A_{{12}} {\left( {\theta _{1} - \widehat{\theta }_{1} } \right)}{\left( {\theta _{2} - \widehat{\theta }_{2} } \right)}} \right]} \leqslant p \cdot F{\left( {p,n - p,1 - \alpha } \right)} $$
(4)

where σ 2 is the mean square fitting error; \( \widehat{\theta }_{1} \) and \( \widehat{\theta }_{2} \) are the best fit parameters; n is the number of observations; p is the number of parameters being determined; 1-α is the confidence level; and F(p, n-p,1-α) is the value for F-distribution. Notably, A 11, A 12, and A 22 in Eq. 4 are the elements of a 2 × 2-symmetrical sensitivity matrix A related to the covariance matrix V as V = σ2A −1. The single-parameter standard error for each parameter was calculated from the diagonal elements of V. The joint confidence interval space in Eq. 3 with three parameters is a confidence ellipsoid; that is, the region in which values of variables θ 1, θ 2, and θ 3 satisfy the inequality in Eq. 5 (Press et al. 1992).

$$ \begin{array}{*{20}l} {{\frac{1} {{\sigma ^{2} }}\left[ {A_{{11}} {\left( {\theta _{1} - \widehat{\theta }_{1} } \right)}^{2} + A_{{22}} {\left( {\theta _{2} - \widehat{\theta }_{2} } \right)}^{2} + A_{{33}} {\left( {\theta _{3} - \widehat{\theta }_{3} } \right)}^{2} } \right. + 2A_{{12}} {\left( {\theta _{1} - \widehat{\theta }_{1} } \right)}{\left( {\theta _{2} - \widehat{\theta }_{2} } \right)}} \hfill} \\ {{\left. { + 2A_{{13}} {\left( {\theta _{1} - \widehat{\theta }_{1} } \right)}{\left( {\theta _{3} - \widehat{\theta }_{3} } \right)} + 2A_{{23}} {\left( {\theta _{2} - \widehat{\theta }_{2} } \right)}{\left( {\theta _{3} - \widehat{\theta }_{3} } \right)}} \right] \leqslant p \cdot F{\left( {p,n - p,1 - \alpha } \right)}} \hfill} \\ \end{array} $$
(5)

where V and A are the 3 × 3-symmetric matrix.

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Lü, F., He, P., Shao, L. et al. Effects of ammonia on hydrolysis of proteins and lipids from fish residues. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 75, 1201–1208 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-007-0935-7

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Keywords

  • Anaerobic digestion
  • Fermentation
  • Kinetic modeling
  • Biodegradability
  • Anaerobic digestion model no.1 (ADM1)