Plant-growth-promoting compounds produced by two agronomically important strains of Azospirillum brasilense, and implications for inoculant formulation
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We evaluated phytohormone and polyamine biosynthesis, siderophore production, and phosphate solubilization in two strains (Cd and Az39) of Azospirillum brasilense used for inoculant formulation in Argentina during the last 20 years. Siderophore production and phosphate solubilization were evaluated in a chemically defined medium, with negative results. Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), and abscisic acid (ABA) production were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ethylene, polyamine, and zeatin (Z) biosynthesis were determined by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-fluorescence and -UV), respectively. Phytohormones IAA, Z, GA3, ABA, ethylene, and growth regulators putrescine, spermine, spermidine, and cadaverine (CAD) were found in culture supernatant of both strains. IAA, Z, and GA3 were found in all two strains; however, their levels were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in Cd (10.8, 2.32, 0.66 μg ml−1). ABA biosynthesis was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in Az39 (0.077 μg ml−1). Ethylene and polyamine CAD were found in all two strains, with highest production in Cd cultured in NFb plus l-methionine (3.94 ng ml−1 h−1) and Az39 cultured in NFb plus l-lysine (36.55 ng ml−1 h−1). This is the first report on the evaluation of important bioactive molecules in strains of A. brasilense as potentially capable of direct plant growth promotion or agronomic yield increase. Az39 and Cd showed differential capability to produce the five major phytohormones and CAD in chemically defined medium. This fact has important technological implications for inoculant formulation as different concentrations of growth regulators are produced by different strains or culture conditions.
KeywordsAzospirillum Abscisic acid Gibberellic acid Indole 3-acetic acid Ethylene Cadaverine Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria
We are grateful to Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Secretaría de Ciencia y Técnica de la Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, and Nitragin Argentina SA for their support in this research.
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