Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 75, Issue 2, pp 467–474 | Cite as

Staining of extracellular polymeric substances and cells in bioaggregates

  • Ming-Yuan Chen
  • Duu-Jong LeeEmail author
  • Joo-Hwa Tay
  • Kuan-Yeow Show


Multiple fluorochrome experiments with as many fluorochromes as possible are desired for exploring the detailed structure of bioaggregates. Spectral peak interference and other practical limitations, however, restrict the maximum number of stains used simultaneously to three. This current study proposes a sixfold labelled scheme to stain the total cells, dead cells, proteins, lipids, and α- and β-polysaccharides in bioaggregates. Two aerobic granule systems, the phenol-fed and the acetate-fed granules, were utilized as the testing samples for demonstrating the use of the proposed scheme.


Staining EPS CLSM Crosstalk 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ming-Yuan Chen
    • 1
  • Duu-Jong Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  • Joo-Hwa Tay
    • 2
  • Kuan-Yeow Show
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Institute of Environmental Science and EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.University of Tunku Abdul RahmanPetaling JayaMalaysia

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