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Phospholipases and their industrial applications

Abstract

Phospholipids are present in all living organisms. They are a major component of all biological membranes, along with glycolipids and cholesterol. Enzymes aimed at modifying phospholipids, namely, phospholipases, are consequently widespread in nature, playing very diverse roles from aggression in snake venom to signal transduction and digestion in humans. In this review, we give a general overview of phospholipases A1, A2, C and D from a sequence and structural perspective and their industrial application. The use of phospholipases in industrial processes has grown hand-in-hand with our ability to clone and express the genes in microbial hosts with commercially attractive amounts. Further, the use in industrial processes is increasing by optimizing the enzymes by protein engineering. Here, we give a perspective on the work done to date to express phospholipases in heterologous hosts and the efforts to optimize them by protein engineering. We will draw attention to the industrial processes where phospholipases play a key role and show how the use of a phospholipase for oil degumming leads to substantial environmental benefits. This illustrates a very general trend: the use of enzymes as an alternative to chemical processes to make products often provides a cleaner solution for the industrial processes. In a world with great demands on non-polluting, energy saving technical solutions—white biotechnology is a strong alternative.

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Correspondence to S. Patkar.

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An erratum to this article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-007-0986-9

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De Maria, L., Vind, J., Oxenbøll, K.M. et al. Phospholipases and their industrial applications. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 74, 290–300 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-006-0775-x

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Keywords

  • Lipase
  • Life Cycle Assessment
  • Phosphatidic Acid
  • Phosphatidyl Choline
  • Protein Engineering