Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Isolation of a carbon disulfide utilizing Thiomonas sp. and its application in a biotrickling filter


The carbon disulfide (CS2)-oxidizing bacterium Thiomonas sp. WZW was enriched and isolated using activated sewage sludge as inoculum. Growth of Thiomonas sp. WZW was observed on CS2, thiosulfate, dimethylsulfide (DMS), dimethyldisulfide (DMDS), and H2S. No growth occurred on dimethylsulfoxide, methanol, acetate, and on complex media with glucose, yeast extract, or tryptone. DMDS-grown cells respired CS2, DMS, and DMDS, while thiosulfate-grown cells did not respire CS2. Chemostat cultures growing on thiosulfate could be rapidly adapted to growth on CS2. Growth was observed between pH 6 and 8. The K s values for CS2, thiosulfate, and sulfide of CS2-grown cells were between 5 and 10 μM. CS2 was inhibitory above 0.3 mM. A lab-scale biotrickling filter with lava stone as carrier material for treatment of CS2-polluted air was inoculated with Thiomonas sp. WZW. A rapid start up (95% removal in 1 week) was obtained at an inlet CS2 concentration of 2 cmol l−1 and an initial space velocity (SV) of 54 h−1. Subsequent thiosulfate addition for a week during start up increased the removal to 99%. The step-wise increase of SV to 130 h−1 and a CS2 concentration to 3 μmol l−1 resulted in a stable performance with a removal efficiency of 95%. Feeding mixtures of volatile sulfur compounds showed simultaneous conversion of H2S, CS2, dimethyldisulfide (DMDS), and DMS, with a preference in this order.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3


  1. Battaglia-Brunet F, Joulian C, Garrido F, Dictor M-C, Morin D, Coupland K, Barrie JD, Hallberg K, Baranger P (2006) Oxidation of arsenite by Thiomonas strains and characterization of Thiomonas arsenivorans sp. nov. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 89:99–108

  2. Beauchamp RO, Bus JS, Propp JA, Boreiko CJ (1993) A critical review on carbon disulphide toxicity. CRC Rev Toxic 11:169–278

  3. Bruneel O, Personne JC, Casiot C, Leblanc M, Elbaz-Poulichet F, Mahler BJ, Le Fleche A, Grimont PA (2003) Mediation of arsenic oxidation by Thiomonas sp. in acid-mine drainage (Carnoules, France). J Appl Microbiol 95:492–499

  4. Chen X-G, Geng A-L, Yan R, Gould WD, Ng Y-L, Liang DT (2004) Isolation and characterization of sulphur-oxidizing Thiomonas sp. and its potential application in biological deodorization. Lett Appl Microbiol 39:495–503

  5. Cho KS, Hirai M, Shoda M (1992) Enhanced removal efficiency of malodorous gases in a pilot-scale peat biofilter inoculated with Thiobacillus thioparus DW44. J Ferment Bioeng 73:46–50

  6. Derikx PJL, Op den Camp HJM, van der Drift C, van Griensven LJLD, Vogels GD (1990) Odorous sulfur compounds emitted during production of compost used as a substrate in mushroom cultivation. Appl Environ Microbiol 56:176–180

  7. Grothaus H, Theis G, Freundt KJ (1982) Schwefelkohlenstoff. In: Bartholomé E, Biekert E, Weigert WM, Weise E (eds) Ullmanns Encyklopädie der technischen Chemie, vol 21, 4th edn. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, pp 87–99

  8. Hartikainen T, Ruuskanen J, Räty K, von Wright A, Martikainen PJ (2000) Physiology and taxonomy of Thiobacillus strain TJ330, which oxidizes carbon disulphide (CS2). J Appl Microbiol 89:580–586

  9. Hartikainen T, Ruuskanen J, Martikainen PJ (2001) Carbon disulfide and hydrogen sulfide removal with a peat biofilter. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 51:387–392

  10. Jordan SL, Krackiewicz-Dowjat AJ, Kelly DP, Wood AP (1995) Novel eubacteria able to grow on carbon disulfide. Arch Microbiol 163:131–137

  11. Jordan SL, McDonald IR, Krackiewicz-Dowjat AJ, Kelly DP, Rainey FA, Murrell JC, Wood AP (1997) Autotrophic growth on carbon disulfide is a property of novel strains of Paracoccus denitrificans. Arch Microbiol 168:225–236

  12. Juretschko S, Timmermann G, Schmid M, Schleifer K-H, Pommerening-Röser A, Koops H-P, Wagner M (1998) Combined molecular and conventional analyses of nitrifying bacterium diversity in activated sludge: Nitrosococcus mobilis and Nitrospira-like bacteria as dominant populations. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:3042–3051

  13. Kelly DP, Smith NA (1990) Organic sulfur compounds in the environment: biogeochemistry, microbiology, and ecological aspects. Adv Microb Ecol 11:345–385

  14. Kelly DP, Chambers LA, Trudinger PA (1969) Cyanolysis and spectrophotometric estimation of trithionate in mixture with thiosulfate and tetrathionate. Anal Chem 41:898–901

  15. Kelly DP, Wood AP, Jordan SL, Padden AN, Gorlenko VM, Dubinina GA (1994) Biological production and consumption of gaseous organic sulphur compounds. Biochem Soc Trans 22:1011–1015

  16. Lobo R, Revah S, Viveros-Garcia T (1999) An analysis of a trickling-bed bioreactor: carbon disulfide removal. Biotechnol Bioeng 63:98–109

  17. Ludwig W, Strunk O (2004) ARB: a software environment for sequence data. Nucl Acids Res 32:1363–1371

  18. Mihalopoulos N, Nguyen BC, Putaud JP, Belviso S (1992) The oceanic source of carbonyl sulfide (COS). Atmos Environ 26A:1383–1394

  19. Moreira D, Amils R (1997) Phylogeny of Thiobacillus cuprinus and other mixotrophic thiobacilli: proposal for Thiomonas gen. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:522–528

  20. Odintsova EV, Wood AP, Kelly DP (1993) Chemolithoautotrophic growth of Thiothrix ramosa. Arch Microbiol 160:152–157

  21. Plas C, Wimmer K, Holubar P, Mattanovich D, Danner H, Jelinek E, Harant H, Braun R (1993) Degradation of carbondisulphide by a Thiobacillus isolate. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 38:820–823

  22. Pol A, Op den Camp HJM, Mees SGM, Kersten MASH, van der Drift C (1994) Isolation of a dimethylsulfide-utilizing Hyphomicrobium species and its application in biofiltration of polluted air. Biodegradation 5:105–112

  23. Smith NA, Kelly DP (1988) Oxidation of carbon disulfide as the sole source of energy for the autotrophic growth of Thiobacillus thioparus strain TK-m. J Gen Microbiol 134:3041–3048

  24. Sorokin DY, Tourova TP, Lysenko AM, Mityushina LL, Kuenen JG (2002) Thioalkalivibrio thiocyanoxidans sp. nov. and Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus sp. nov., novel alkaliphilic, obligately autotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria capable of growth on thiocyanate, from soda lakes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:657–664

  25. Suylen GMH, Kuenen JG (1986) Chemostat enrichment and isolation of Hyphomicrobium EG, a dimethyl-sulphide oxidizing methylotroph and reevaluation of Thiobacillus MS1. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 52:281–293

  26. Windsperger A (1990) Anwendung eines biologischen Trofkörperreaktors zur Abluftreinigung eines Viskosebetriebes. Chem Ing Tech 12:1033–1034

Download references


We would like to thank Mike S.M. Jetten, Marcel H. Zandvoort, and Marjan Smeulders for stimulating discussions.

Author information

Correspondence to Huub J. M. Op den Camp.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Pol, A., van der Drift, C. & Op den Camp, H.J.M. Isolation of a carbon disulfide utilizing Thiomonas sp. and its application in a biotrickling filter. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 74, 439–446 (2007).

Download citation


  • Thiosulfate
  • Space Velocity
  • Mineral Medium
  • DMDS
  • Inlet Concentration