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Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 72, Issue 2, pp 211–222 | Cite as

Overview of bacterial expression systems for heterologous protein production: from molecular and biochemical fundamentals to commercial systems

  • Kay TerpeEmail author
Mini-Review

Abstract

During the proteomics period, the growth in the use of recombinant proteins has increased greatly in the recent years. Bacterial systems remain most attractive due to low cost, high productivity, and rapid use. However, the rational choice of the adequate promoter system and host for a specific protein of interest remains difficult. This review gives an overview of the most commonly used systems: As hosts, Bacillus brevis, Bacillusmegaterium, Bacillussubtilis, Caulobacter crescentus, other strains, and, most importantly, Escherichia coli BL21 and E. coli K12 and their derivatives are presented. On the promoter side, the main features of the l-arabinose inducible araBAD promoter (PBAD), the lac promoter, the l-rhamnose inducible rhaPBAD promoter, the T7 RNA polymerase promoter, the trc and tac promoter, the lambda phage promoter pL, and the anhydrotetracycline-inducible tetA promoter/operator are summarized.

Keywords

Recombinant Protein Codon Usage Codon Usage Bias Bacterial Host Promoter System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgement

The author thanks Prof. A. Steinbüchel for supporting this review.

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© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IBA GmbHGöttingenGermany

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