Advertisement

Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 72, Issue 5, pp 861–868 | Cite as

Lactic acid production from xylose by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae

  • Ronald H. W. MaasEmail author
  • Robert R. Bakker
  • Gerrit Eggink
  • Ruud A. Weusthuis
Biotechnological Products and Process Engineering

Abstract

Lignocellulosic biomass is considered nowadays to be an economically attractive carbohydrate feedstock for large-scale fermentation of bulk chemicals such as lactic acid. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae is able to grow in mineral medium with glucose as sole carbon source and to produce optically pure l(+)-lactic acid. Less is known about the conversion by R. oryzae of pentose sugars such as xylose, which is abundantly present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. This paper describes the conversion of xylose in synthetic media into lactic acid by ten R. oryzae strains resulting in yields between 0.41 and 0.71 g g−1. By-products were fungal biomass, xylitol, glycerol, ethanol and carbon dioxide. The growth of R. oryzae CBS 112.07 in media with initial xylose concentrations above 40 g l−1 showed inhibition of substrate consumption and lactic acid production rates. In case of mixed substrates, diauxic growth was observed where consumption of glucose and xylose occurred subsequently. Sugar consumption rate and lactic acid production rate were significantly higher during glucose consumption phase compared to xylose consumption phase. Available xylose (10.3 g l−1) and glucose (19.2 g l−1) present in a mild-temperature alkaline treated wheat straw hydrolysate was converted subsequently by R. oryzae with rates of 2.2 g glucose l−1 h−1 and 0.5 g xylose l−1 h−1. This resulted mainly into the product lactic acid (6.8 g l−1) and ethanol (5.7 g l−1).

Keywords

Fermentation Lactic Acid Xylose Xylitol Wheat Straw 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported with a grant of the Dutch Programme EET (Economy, Ecology, Technology), a joint initiative of the Ministries of Economic Affairs, Education, Culture and Sciences and of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment. Co-financing was provided by Program 412 Renewable Resources of the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality.

References

  1. Bai D-M, Jia M-Z, Zhao X-M, Ban R, Shen F, Li X-G, Xu S-M (2003) l(+)-Lactic acid production by pellet-form Rhizopus oryzae R1021 in a stirred tank fermentor. Chem Eng Sci 58:785–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carlsen M, Nielsen J (2001) Influence of carbon source on a-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 57:346–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Datta R, Tsai S-P, Bonsignore P, Moon S-H, Frank JR (1995) Technological and economic potential of poly(lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives. FEMS Microbiol Rev 16:221–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hahn-Hägerdal B, Jeppsson H, Skoog K, Prior BA (1994) Biochemistry and physiology of xylose fermentation by yeast. Enzyme Microb Technol 16:933–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hinman ND, Wright JD, Hoagland W, Wyman CE (1989) Xylose fermentation, an economic analysis. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 20/21:391–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kosakai Y, Park Yong S, Okabe M (1997) Enhancement of l(+)-lactic acid production using mycelial flocs of Rhizopus oryzae. Biotechnol Bioeng 55:461–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ladisch MR, Lin KW, Voloch M, Tsao GT (1983) Process considerations in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. Enzyme Microb Technol 5:82–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lockwood LB, Ward GE, May OE (1936) The physiology of Rhizopus oryzae. J Agric Res 53:849–857Google Scholar
  9. Longacre A, Reimers JM, Gannon JE, Wright BE (1997) Flux analysis of glucose metabolism in Rhizopus oryzae for the purpose of increased lactate yields. Fungal Genet Biol 21:30–39CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Medwid RD, Grant DW (1984) Germination of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores. Appl Environ Microbiol 48:1067–1071PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Park EY, Anh PN, Okuda N (2004) Bioconversion of waste office paper to l(+)-lactic acid by the filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae. Bioresour Technol 93:77–83CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Skory CD (2000) Isolation and expression of lactate dehydrogenase genes from Rhizopus oryzae. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:2343–2348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Skory CD (2004) Lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae transformants with modified lactate dehydrogenase activity. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 64:237–242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Skory CD, Freer SN, Bothast RJ (1998) Production of l-lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae under oxygen limiting conditions. Biotechnol Lett 20:191–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Taherzadeh MJ, Fox M, Hjorth H, Edebo L (2003) Production of mycelium biomass and ethanol from paper pulp sulfite liquor by Rhizopus oryzae. Bioresour Technol 88:167–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Tay A, Yang ST (2002) Production of l(+)-lactic acid from glucose and starch by immobilized cells of Rhizopus oryzae in a rotating fibrous bed bioreactor. Biotechnol Bioeng 80:1–12CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Tsao GT, Cao NJ, Gong CS (1999) Production of multifunctional organic acids from renewable resources. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 65:243–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Yang CW, Lu Z, Tsao GT (1995) Lactic acid production by pellet-form Rhizopus oryzae in a submerged system. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 51/52:57–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Zhou Y, Dominguez JM, Cao N, Du J, Tsao GT (1999) Optimization of l-lactic acid production from glucose by Rhizopus oryzae ATCC 52311. Appl Biochem Biotechnol:401–407Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald H. W. Maas
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Robert R. Bakker
    • 1
  • Gerrit Eggink
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ruud A. Weusthuis
    • 1
  1. 1.Biobased Products, Agrotechnology and Food Sciences GroupWageningen University and Research CentreWageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Food and Bioprocess Engineering, Agrotechnology and Food Sciences GroupWageningen University and Research CentreWageningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations